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THE ENGINEERING WORKS 



OF THB 



KISTNA DELTA. 



VOLUME L 



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<h\SZ Gb 7 1 




General CHARLES A. ORR, r.e. 



From enlargement of a photograph taken by ELLIOT A FRY. 



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THE 



ENGINEERING "WORKS 



OP THE 



KISTNA DELTA 



A DESCBIPTIVE AND HISTOEICAL ACCOUNT. 

COMPILED FOB THE MADRAS GOVERNMENT 

GEORGE T.° WALCH, M.lNST.C.E., 

Chief Engineer fob Irrigation, Madras (Retired). 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOLUME L 



PBINTED AND PUBLISHED BT THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS. 



1899. 



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CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 
THE KISTNA RIVER AND DISTRICT. 

PAGES 

Course and discharge of the River — Its chief affluents — Its months — Season 
for floods — Boundaries of the district — The Delta— Eastern and Western 
Sections — Their natural main drainages— Masulipatam — Nizampatam — 
Sketch Map 1-7 

CHAPTER n. 

THE KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD WORKS— PROPOSALS 
AND SANCTION. 

First proposal for anient by Major Beatson — Investigations and reports by 
Mr. Michael Topping — Famine of 1832-33 and following bad seasons — 
Captain Buckle's reports — Captain Lake's report — Referred to Major 
Arthur Cotton for opinion — His strong support of proposals — Matter 
referred to a Committee — Committee's report, specification and estimate 
— Despatch from Court of Directors sanctioning — Delay in beginning 
work — Aithur Cotton's remonstrance — Effect of — Captain Orr appointed to 
carry out the work 8-53 

CHAPTER in. 

KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD WORKS-SITE AND DESIGN. 
Site— Design — Type adopted — Modifications of sanctioned design in execution. 54-57 

CHAPTER IV. 

KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD WORKS-EXECUTION. 

Captain Orr entrusted with execution — Regularity of Indian Seasons — 
Operations of working Season, 1852 — Captain Orr's general plan for 
proceedings and proposals for modifications of design — The Board's 
opinions thereon — Alterations in levels of floors of sluices — Commence- 
ment of actual construction — Flood of December 1852— High flood, 1853 — 
River embankment above anient required more than anticipated. Work 
done to end January 1854 — Despatch of Court of Directors, 28th June , 
1854 — Work done in working season, 1854 — Captain Orr's recommend- 
ations for modifications of design — Decision of the Board and Government 
with regard s to — Captain Orr reports completion of Anient and Head works 
•—Government order on the subject— Cost of Anient and Head works — Cost 
of Railway Bridge (Foot-note) ,,, , , , f 58-75 



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VI 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 



ANICUT AND HEAD WORKS SINCE CONSTRUCTION. 



Proposed Bridges over anicut — Anient not high enough — Raising anient in 
1891 and 1894 — Damage to anient in 1894— Flood of 1896 and serious 
damage to anient— Consideration of causes of damage and of effects of 
Railway bridge — Mr. Higham's final decision — Government of India's 
decision — Removal of the raining of 1894 and substitution of falling 
shutters — The Scouring- sluices — The Head-sluices — The Head-locks 



76-90 



CHAPTER VI. 

WORKS IN THE DELTA— SANCTIONS—EXECUTION— COST. 

First expected cost of scheme— Vague ideas as to requirements — Estimates 
sanctioned to end 1856— Stoppage of works in 1857 on account of Mutiny 
— Speoial completion of Masulipatam Canal — Sanctions between 1858 and 
1863 — Captain Chambers' report on state of works in 1861 — Works again 
taken in hand with vigour — Major Anderson's proposals and estimate — 
Anticipated cost of system raised to Rs. 55,34,655 — Sanctioned *by 
Secretary of State — Loans for remunerative Public Work* — Government 
of India insists on submission of comprehensive scheme— The " comple- 
tion " estimates — Complete scheme sent in — Great increase in anticipated 
cost — Abstract of the " Completion " estimates — Condensed description of 
works therein provided for — Drainage receives considerable attention — 
Principles for dealing with drainage — Not closely adhered to — " Straight- 
cuts " — Works of " completion estimate " taken in hand, and yearly expendi- 
ture " — Closing of construction estimate — Many deviations from estimate — 
Statement of Capital outlay — Expenditure on Revenue account— Remarks 
about working expenses 



91-127 



CHAPTER VII. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF WHOLE SY8TEM. 

The Anient— Views of— The Head-Sluices— The Soouring-sluioes— The Head 
Locks — Canals, Ac., Eastern Delta — Drainage, Eastern Delta- -River em- 
bankment, Eastern Delta— Canals of Western Delta— Remarks about 
Bank-Canals — Drainage, Western Delta — River embankment, Western 
Delta 128-144 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MATERIALS, DESIGN, ETC., OF WORKS. 

Earthwork— Objections to use of natural Drainages as distributaries — Onsuit- 
ability of old Native channels — Formnla for discharge of Channels— 
Brickwork— Concrete — Sarki- mortar — Stone — Locks— Weirs — Aqueducts 



—Irrigation sluices— Bridges — Ferr> boats 



145-149 



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CONTENTS. Til 

CHAPTER IK. 
IRRIGATION. 

PAGES 

Primary object of the works — Areas of Irrigation originally anticipated — 
Growth of —Actual area, 1897-98 — Consideration of possible increase — 
Proposed Reservoirs — Duty of water — Mr. Chatterton's investigations — 
Largely increased anticipations — Prevention of waste of water — Bice culti- 
vation — Irrigation rules and rates — Length of distributaries — Rainfall ... 150-159 

CHAPTER X. 

NAVIGATION. 

Combination of Navigation with Irrigation — List of Navigable canals — Effect 
on development of Irrigation — Difficulties in combining Navigation with 
Irrigation— Traffic Statement— Effect of East Ooast Railway— Tolls, Ac., till 
1898 — Proposals to force traffic on to railway — Mr. Hughes' Note on subject 
— Tolls, Ac., now in force — Navigation maintenance charges— Navigation 
rules— Towage on canals • 160-172 

CHAPTER XI. 

RESULTS Off THE KI8TNA DELTA SYSTEM. 

Direct money returns— Growth of Revenue— Population — Cultivation— Com- 
munications— General 173-176 



APPENDICES. 

I. List of Officers connected with Eistna Delta works 177-183 

II. Expenditure on Capital Account year by year ... 184-187 

III. Areas irrigated each year from 1855-56 188 



INDEX 189-191 



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ENGINEERING HISTORY 



OF 



THE KISTNA DELTA, 



CHAPTER I. 

THE KISTNA RIVER AND DISTRICT 

ALONG- the western side of the Peninsula of India from the 
-£j- Valley of the Tapti to Cape Comorin, a distance of nearly 
1,000 miles, rises the mountain range known as the * Western 
GMts' roughly parallel to, and but a short distance from, the 
Arabian Sea. 

This great barrier is nowhere pierced by rivers, and all the 
country eastward of its summit levels, even though 

^SSSi^^^ the 7 are witWn *S ht of the Weet Coast > has t0 
send its surplus waters to the Bay of Bengal. It 

thus comes that the drainage from 47,827 square miles of the Bombay 

Presidency, from the whole of the Nizdm's Dominions and of the 

Mysore Territory, and from almost the whole of the Madras Presidency, 

besides that from upwards of 54,000 square miles of the Central 

Provinces and Berar, — a total area in all of about 338,100 square miles, 

— has to find its way into the sea along the eastern coast of the Madras 

Presidency. 

This is effected chiefly by four great rivers — the GhSd&vari, 
Kistna, Penn^r and Gauvery, the drainage areas of which are 
115,000 square miles, 97,050 square miles, 20,000 square miles, and 
26,266 square miles, respectively. This History has to treat of the 
Engineering Works, by whioh the delta of the second of these 
rivers has been converted from a poverty-stricken sparsely cultivated 
tract, subjeot to recurring droughts, into a prosperous country 
covered with cereal crop rendered virtually independent of the 



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Z KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY, 

precarious local rainfall by a network of canals and channels from the 

great river which formerly carried nearly all its wealth of waters 

uselessly to the sea. 

The Eiyer Kistna* ("Krishna") has its sources and those of 

* ^ _. ^ i* 3 affluents spread along the eastern slope of the 
Course of the Kistna. r ^ r 

Western Q-hats over some six degrees of latitude, 

almost touching to the north the headwaters of the Gr6ddvari, and to 
the south overlapping those of the Penn£r and Cauvery. Of these 
sources the one which is the traditional fountain head of the Kistna 
issues from a spout fashioned into the image of a cow's mouth in an 
ancient temple of Mah&deo at the foot of a steep hill near the Bombay 
sanitarium of Mahdbaleshwar, some 4,000 feet above sea-level. From 
this t " the Kistna runs southward in a rapid course, flowing through 
the British (Bombay) districts of Satdra and Belgaum, the cluster of 
Native States which form the South Mar&thd Agency, and the district 
of Kalddgi. There it turns east to pass into the dominions of the 
Nizim of Haiderdbdd. In this portion of its course it receives many 
tributaries, of which the chief are the Terla, Warna, Idganga, Q-hdtpra- 
bha and Mdlprabha. All these, like the main stream, are characteristic 
rivers of the plateau of the Deccan. They run in deep channels, from 
whioh it is almost impossible to lead off channels for irrigation. In the 
rainy season they swell into brimming torrents, but during the remaining 
eight months of the year they shrink to mere threads of water, strag- 
gling through a sandy waste. 

"On entering the Nizdm's Dominions, the Kistna drops . . . 
to the ' alluvial Dodbs 9 of Shorapur and Kaichur. The fall is as much 
as 408 feet in about 3 miles . . . The first of the dodbs mentioned 
above is formed by the confluence of the Bhima, which brings down 
the drainage of Ahmadnagar, Poona and Shorapur ; the second by the 
confluence of the Tungabhadra, which drains the north (and west) 
of Mysore, and the c Ceded Districts ' of Bellary and Karnul (Kurnool). 
At the point of junction with the Tungabhadra the Kistna again strikes 
upon British Territory, and, still flowing east, forms for a considerable 
distanoe the boundary between the Madras Presidency and the Nizdm's 
Dominions. There it is joined by its last important tributary, the Musi, 
on whose banks stands the Niz&m's Capital of Haiderdb&d. On reach- 
ing the frontier chain of the Eastern Q-h&ts the Kistna turns south." 

* "Krishna" is the oorreot transliteration of the vernacular, but "Kistna" 
having by long usage become the popular English spelling has been official lj adopted, 
■f* See Hunter's Imperial Gazetteer of India. 



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J : No 3606 
Zfl. Co pi GS 410 



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79 



KISTNA RIVER BASIN. 



■HP 
81 



Kistna Delta Engineer in g Hi 



- ~ I --* 



SCALE OF MILES 
50 



100 Miles 



Hills omitted u the water course* 
•hew the slope of the country 







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COURSE OF THE KISTNA E1VEB. d 

It then passes through a narrow gorge and enters the plains of the 
Coromandel Coast, but does not for another 35 miles or so get quite clear 
of outlying hills, till at Bezwada * it flows between two of them, which 
confront one another at a distance of only | mile apart. Beyond this 
point stretching away on both sides of the river lies the alluvial plain it 
has formed, which bears the name of the " Kistna Delta." Through 
this the river continues in a single channel of great width for another 40 
miles, when it sends off to the left a branch known as the u Puligadda " 
which forms the " Island of Divi," and after a course of 20 miles enters 
the sea at the " Point" of that name. The main stream continues for 
another 15 miles and then breaks up into three mouths, the 4 Narsagunta 
Kistna/ ; Lank^vanirichi Kistna ' and ' V6nisagara Kistna,' separated 
from one another by two small islands covered for the greater part by 
dense mangrove jungles, and more or less submerged during spring tides 
and high floods, |but having, nevertheless, some 2,000 inhabitants with 
a few hundred acres of precarious cultivation. 

These mouths of the river lie in from 15° 45' to 15° 49' N. latitude, 
and between 80° 52' and 81° E. longitude, about 200 miles north of 
Madras and only 60 miles south of the Yasista mouth of the GhSd&vari. 

From its most distant source to the sea the Kistna is approximately 
800 miles in length. 

The drainage basin of the Kistna, like that of the Goddvari, lies 

chiefly under the influence of the South-west 

^^oo isc a ge Monsoon rains, and it is therefore from June to 

October that it brings down by far the greater 

quantity of water, occasionally swelling into floods, in the highest of 

which as much as 770,000 cubic feet f a second sweep past Bezwada, a 

quantity 100 times as great as the maximum discharge of the Thames at 

Staines, and nearly twice as great as that of the Nile where it enters ih 

delta. After October the water in the Kistna decreases rapidly till by 

the end of January or beginning of February it does not top the anicut 

if the head sluices are open, and during the following three months it 

dwindles to a petty stream meandering through a 

of thr»SL di8CliaiPge wido ex P ansc of sand ' its m^*™ 111 discharge not 
exceeding 100 cubic feet per second. 



* This is the adopted spelling though Beaavada would be more strictly correct. 
In old documents, and indeed in some comparatively recent ones, it appears under 
several fancy guises, e.g., ' Bezoarah,' ' Baizwarah.' 

t See Mullins' Irrigation Manual, article 15. 



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4 KIStNA DELTA ENGlKEEfclNG HISTORY. 

In the Atlas Volume will be found a diagram showing graphi- 
cally the various stages of the river at Bezwada 

Diagrams of height! between 15th June and 1st December for a few 
of water at Betwada 
Anjimt. average years, for some of exceptionally high 

floods, and for others of particularly low discharges, 

and another diagram showing the average depth of water on the anicut 

from 15th June to 15th December for 20 years, 1878 to 1897. 

The District which bears the name of the great river flowing 
through it is a portion of the "Northern Oircars " 
aeua? 1 * riitrlCt " d ^^d h 7 the'Eaat India Company towards the 
end of last century. The 'district,' as it now 
exists, was formed in 1859 by the amalgamation of the two Collectorates 
of Gunttir and Masulipatam, a small portion of the latter being assigned 
to the G-6ddvari District. It is bounded on the north by the Kistna 
river, which there flows between it and the Nizdm's Dominions ; on the 
east by the Gh5d4vari District and the sea ; on the south by the sea and 
the Nellore District; and on the west by the Kurnool District. Its area 
is 8,470 square miles, of which about one quarter is known as the 
" Kistna Delta." This tract is divided by the river into two nearly equal 
parts, generally spoken of as the " Eastern " and " Western" deltas. 

The "Easteen Delta" has an area of 1,160 square miles; it 

stretches away eastward from the left bank of the 

the Delta? § § Kistna for about 40 miles to the confines of the 

'Western Section' of the Q-6ddvari Delta, the 

navigable canals of the two systems being in communication at three 

places. 

Between the alluvial plains of the Kistna and the Goddvari there 

remains a depression unfilled by their deposits 
The Colair Lake. . J 

known as the Colair (or Koldru) Lake, covering 

when full an area of about 170 square miles including the several 

islands with which it is studded. Little silt-laden waters from the two 

great rivers now reach [the lake, but upland streams draining some 1,600 

square miles* fall into it. Its only outlet is the Upput^ru (Salt-river), 

a deep tidal stream of some 20 miles in length which issues from the 

south-east corner of the lake. The Upputeru and an arbitrary line 



* This is exclusive of the " Yerra Kalwa," a river draining some 860 square miles 
which used to flow into the lake from the Gddavari District, but is now partly oanaliied 
and has most of its flood waters diverted to the sea, only a small portion of them in very 
high floods reaching the Colair. 



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feASTERK DELTA KATUHAL DfcAINAGfe. 5 

through the lake itself form the boundary between the lower portions of 
the Kistna and Gr6d&vari Districts. 

The natural main drainages of the " Eastern Delta " were — 

First — The " Budamfru," which drains some 

agSSSJ^SnS^". 500 8( l uare mile8 of *P land country. It rises 
about 35 miles north of Bezwada and runs as 
though it would fall into the Kistna at that place, but when within two 
miles of it the Bezwada hill interposes and the Budam^ru after abrupt 
turns for a short distance, first to the north and then to the south, runs 
eastward for another 30 miles or so through the delta lands to the 
western oorner of the Colair Lake. 

In former days a cut was made from the Kistna to the Budam6ru 
by which water was taken to it, when the freshes were sufficiently high, 
for irrigation along the lower portion of its course. That unsatisfactory 
arrangement has been entirely superseded and the Budam^ru has been 
restored to its legitimate duty of simply oarrying surplus waters to the 
Colair Lake. Even so it is the cause of frequent damage to the Ellore 
Canal, which had to be taken near it for some 5 miles at a level unsuited 
for efficient passing of flood waters under and across the oanal. 

Second — The " Pull6ru " ; this was doubtless once a spill channel of 
the Kistna) leaving the river near Bezwada and after a tortuous course 
of considerable length dividing into several ohannels, some flowing 
southwards to the tidal creeks near Masulipatam and others spreading 
eastwards through the extensive alluvial plains lying south of the Colair 
Lake and west of the Upput^ru. These channels were made use of for 
irrigation, directly by means of dams across them, and indirectly by 
means of tanks which they fed when the Kistna was high enough to 
send considerable quantities of water into the Pull^ru. The effect of so 
using these channels was, of course, to destroy, or at all events seriously 
interfere with, their effectiveness as drains. 

The natural head of the Pulleru from the Kistna gradually closed, and 
in the interests of the irrigation which, as just explained, had grown up 
along it and its branches, recourse was had to artificial channels to lead 
water from the river at places which, from time to time, appeared the 
best. These channels having open heads were during high floods sources 
of great danger, not infrequently leading to disastrous inundation of the 
country they were intended to benefit. In 1837, therefore, the c cut ' or 
c head ' then in use, about 15 miles below Bezwada, was provided with a 
head sluice, of six vents 8 feet high by 4 feet wide, which did good 
service till the formation of a great sand bank in the river obstructed 



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6 &ISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

the flow of water to it, and it was in its turn superseded by the vastly 

superior arrangements which came into force when the anicut was built. 

Many miles of the upper portion of the Pulteru were incorporated in the 

Masulipatam Canal, and considerable lengths of its branches have been 

converted into canals and irrigation distributaries, their places aa drains 

being taken by new channels excavated specially for the purpose. 

On the coast of this section of the delta, about halfway between 

the mouths of the Kistna and where the Uppu- 
Kasuiipatam. 

teru joins the sea, is situated Masulipatam, * or 

" Bandar," one of the earliest and best known of the ' factories ' of the 

East India Company, and a port formerly of considerable commercial 

and military importance. It is still the civil head-quarters of the 

district, with a population of upwards of 38,000, but the shoaling up of 

its bay by the Kistna silt has ruined it as a port, and its military value 

as the sea-gate of the Niz&m's Dominions has disappeared since railways 

have brought them into easy communication with Madras and Bombay. 

Masulipatam was on the night of the 1st November 1864 the scene 

of an appalling catastrophe, when a storm-wave 

YoTraAfMSet ° f ^ SWC F* over ** an< * *^ e ftdjwent country, drowning in 
a few moments upwards of 30,000 human beings 
and innumerable cattle. 

The " Western Delta," with an area of 950 square miles, lies to 
the right of the river, between it, the sea, and the 
the Delta, ° Signer lands of the Ghintur taluk. It is roughly 

triangular in shape, its base along the river being 
Borne 60 miles in length, whilst its apex, 70 miles from the head of the 
delta, but only 40 miles along the coast from the mouths of the river, is 
at Pedda Q-anjdm where the Commamur Canal tails into the " Bucking- 
ham Canal " at its 196th mile from Madras. 

The natural main drainage lines of this section of the delta were — 

First — The old river spill channel, known as 

age» a ome^etteriil)eita" tte " BSpalle drain," serving, with its affluents, 

the strip of the delta lying between the river 

and the Tungabhadra drain, and falling into the tidal creeks cast of 

Nizampatam. 

Second— "The Tungabhadra." This ran from near the Kistna at 
the back of the Sitanagaram hills through the heart of this section of 
the delta to the tidal creek west of Nizampatam. It received on its 

• Correot transliteration of the Telnyu name is " Maohlipatnani." 



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SKETCHI 

OF TH 

KISTNA DEL" 

SHOWING PG 
THE PRINCIPAL IRRIGATIO 




Reg. No. 3862 
Copies 410 



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Kfetna D«1U l&fiaMrinff Hiatagy 




Phuto-Pr: . . 

1897 



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PRINCIPAL MASONRY WORKS, 

Positions of which are shown on the Sketch Map. 



EASTERN SECTION. 



No. 
1 



10 

11 
12 
IS 
1* 
16 
16 
17 
It) 



IS) 
20 
21 



MAIN CANAL. 

Hbad Lock abd Hbad Sluici 

CLLORC CANAL. 

bbidob at hbad ... •* 

Bbidob (Nbw) 

Budaxbbu Aqueduct 

kbsabapalli do 

pbbikbbd bbidob 

WB1T TaMBILBBU Aqubduct 
GlBDBB BBIDOB • ... 

East Tahxilbbu Outlet _• 



RYVES CANAL. 
Bbidob AT Hbad (formerly thb 

RbGULATOB) 

Bbidob op s Abchbs .„ ... 

Nbw Rbgulatob .. 

NiDA.M4.Baa Bbidob ... -, 
Uppalur Ubdbb TUBBBL ... 
Komatigubta Wbib ... ... 

Kubdbbu Bbidgb ... „• 
ktdavakollu bbidob m 

CHB5Dai.YA.K0DU UtfDBB TUBBIL ... 



BANTUMILLI CANAL. 

Kowtarax Lock abd Wbib 
Kaxalipubix Lock and Wbib ... 
Tidal Lock abd Wbib (ibto Uppu- 
tbbo) .. ... ^ 



Dolta 




Mileage. 




X. 


CH. 


No. 

22 
23 

u 

25 




45 


>t 


1 


5 


! 27 


27 


50 

70 

9 


; 28 


37 
39 


40 
5 


-1 


40 


20 
51 


31 

1 82 
I 
33 


i 


28 




1 


51 


34 


B 


19 


1 36 


11 


65 


36 


14 


21 


37 


17 


51 


19 


49 




20 


68 


' S3 
39 


39 


29 


40 


45 




41 


66 


5 


1 



MASULIPATAM CANAL. 

Kabkipad Wbib ... 

Do. Lock ~. 

Do. Bbidgb 

Vibbabki Lock 

Do. Wbib ... ... \ 

Do. Bbidob 5 

IffAXPUDI UVDBB TUBBBL 

Niduxolb Lock 

Do. Wbib - # 

Do. Bbidgb J 

Akaxabbu Lock abd Wbib ... \ 
Do. Bbidob S 

sultabagabax ulcdbe tubbbl ... 

Cbiitta.oubtapa.lbx Iroh Gibdib 
Bbidob 

Tidal Lock ... ^ •« 



PULLERU CANAL. 

Old Hbad Sluicb -. 
Nbw do. 

Witub Bbidob 

Paxubu Lock abd Wbib 



POLRAZ CANAL. 

Hbad Lock abd Wbib... ... 

Mudibbpillb Bbidob 

Vibjirax Lock abd Wbib 

Tadibtada . do. (ibto Up- 

PUIBBU) ... „. ... 



Delta 
Mile***. 

It. CH. 


12 
12 
12 
24 


48 
52 
55 
42 


24 


45 


28 
37 


16 


37 


2ft 


43 


8 


45 


55 


46 
49 


26 

no 


12 
12 
21 
33 


48 
51 
27 


39 
46 
54 


27 
73 



64 



71 



WESTERN SECTION. 



42 



42-1. 
43 



44 

46 
46 
47 
48 
40 
5J 
61 
62 
63 



64 

65 

66 

57 

67-A 

58 



MAIN CANAL. 

SlTAHAOABAX LOCK ABD HBAD 

SLUICB5 

Nbw (Auxiliary) Hbad Sluicb ... 
Old Bjcapb it Duggirala ... 



NIZAMPATAM CANAL. 

Duggibali Wbib ... ~. 

Do. Lock ... ... 

Nabdivbllugu Bbidoi 

Tbballi Bbidob 

Kuchipudi Lock ... ... 

IlfTUB do. 

Nallavada Surplus Wbib ... 

Do. Lock 

Surplus Wbib it Tidal Look 
Tidax Lock 



BANK CANAL. 

Rbvbbdbapad Lock ... 
Do. Wbib ... 

Kollub Lock abd Wbib 
Vbllltub Lock abd Wbib 

Ukdbb Tueebl 

Mobtota Lock ahd Wbib 







69 






6J 


12 


1 


61 
62 


13 


1 


63 
61 


13 


2 


65 


14 


51 


66 
67 
6S 
69 


13 
22 
31 


47 
24 


33 


33 


70 


9 


59 
5 


71 
72 


41 


7 


73 

74 
76 
76 


7 


53 


77 


r 


63 


78 


28 




7»» 


33 


54 


80 


41 


30 




45 


44 





COMMAMUR CANAL. 



Coxxaxur Lock 

KoLiKiLua Bbidob 

Gutrrua Nalli ob Jaobrlaxudi 
8ubplus Wbib and 2 Ubdbb 

TUBBRLS 

Jaobrlaxudi Lock abd Wbib ... 

Chbbbolb Bbidob 

kollixbbla aqubduct 

Do. Lock abd Wbib 

POBDBAPAD SURPLUS CaLIBOULAH. 

Pobdbapad Bbidob 

nallaxada subplu8 sluicbb 
Do. Lock abd Wbib 

Sakicalva Aqubduct 

Pabchubu-Vagu Subplub Sluicbs. 

Kabibchbdu Aqueduct 

Do. Bbidgb 

8warba aqubduct ... „. 

Allbbu Surplus Sluicbs 

Sabtabavub Lock 

Ibkollu Road Bbidoi 

Coast Road Bbidob 

Uppukobdubu Vagu Aqubduct ... 

Pbdda Gabjax Tidal Loc* (Jubc- 

tiob with Buckiboham Cabal)... 



70 



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WESTEBN DELTA NATURAL DBAINAGE. 7 

way the upland drainages known as the G-untur-nalla, the Nakkavagu, 
and a branch of the Nallamada, carrying to the sea the flood waters 
from upwards of 1,100 square miles. It also used to reoeive near 
Sitanagaram spill water from the Kistna when in high flood. Between 
1840 and 1847 a cut was made from the river just above the Sita- 
nagaram hill to take water into the Tungabhadra, and from it irrigation 
channels were led off at various places, the principal being in the 
neighbourhood of Jagerlamudi to supplement the supply of the B&patla, 
Commam&r, Nandur and other tanks. The dams across the stream for 
this purpose of course seriously interfered with its efficiency as a drain, 
and even to the present day there is one of these dams which holds up 
water for the irrigation of some 8,000 acres. This faulty arrangement 
will, however, soon be changed and the drain be free to perform its proper 
duties without obstruction. Nearly 13 miles of the Old Tungabhadra 
have been incorporated in the ' Main Canal ' and a further 8 miles in 
the ' Oommam6r Canal.' 

Third — " The Bomp^ru." From B&patla a continuous broad sand- 
ridge runs along the coast, and blocks the drainage of some 500 square 
miles, forcing it, when it has almost reached the sea, to flow for a 
considerable distance parallel to the coast till it finds an exit by the 
Chinna Gtanj&m creek which pierces the sand-ridge about 26 miles from 
B&patla. The swamp thus formed along the back of the sand-ridge 
is known as the " RompSru." During the rains this is a broad expanse 
of water which drains off but slowly. 

On a tidal creek, about 15 miles west of the most southern mouth of 
the Kistna, is situated the town of Nizampatam 
where nearly 300 years ago the East India Com- 
pany established a u factory," which for some time was looked on as a 
rival of Masulipatam, but soon faded into comparative insignificance. It 
is now visited only by small native craft and is of little importanoe 
exoept for its extensive Q-overnment salt " pans." 

The accompanying sketch map, and the two larger ones at the end 

of Volume II, will, it is hoped, make this oondensed 
8k*toh maps. 

description of the delta clear. 



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( 8 ) 



CHAPTER II. 

THE KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD-W ORES- 
PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 

More than a century ago the idea of utilizing the waters of the Kistna 

for extensive irrigation of its deltaic lands received considerable 

attention. 

In 1792 and 1793 a Major Beatson brought the matter to the notice 

of Q-overnment in letters from whioh the fol- 
Major Beatson*! letter* 

lowing is an extract : — 

" This river Kistna is at no place so narrow within 130 miles of the sea 
as at Baizwarah, where the whole body of water is compressed between two 
mountains in a space not exceeding 1,100 yards, which at a small distance 
above and below expands over a surface of two miles and half, and which 
I should take to be nearly the mean breadth of the water of the Kistna all 
below Baizwarah. 

" The mountains on either side of this strait appear to have been one 
continued chain until the river forced its way, and as they extend a few 
miles into the Gunttir Circar, and to the north join the hills about Nozeed, 
&o., it appears to me to be very practicable, if it were necessary, by means 
of a dam across this part of the river, entirely to turn its course into the 
Masulipatam or Gunttir Circars. 

" Suoh a work, however, would require being raised to a very consider- 
able height and to be of a proportional thickness ; and perhaps equal, if not 
greater, advantages might be obtained at a much less expense by raising 
the dam only to a certain height, in such a manner that a sufficiency of 
water for the purposes of agriculture might be diverted by means of 
aqueducts into these districts. 

" The proper height necessary for such a dam to be raised can only be 
determined by a minute and accurate survey of the ground and a series of 
levels, in order to ascertain the difference of level between the bank of the 
river at Baizwarah and those parts of the Oircars, to whioh it may be most 
eligible to have the water conveyed. 

" And if it should be found (which I am inclined to hope may be the 
case), that the level of Baizwarah i s even twelve feet higher than the level 
of the country at EUore, the advantages from the proposed dam across the 
Kistna would be immense, as the whole country between Baizwarah and 
EUore, and considerably to the eastward of this line might be watered at all 
seasons from the aqueduot. 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C— PBOPOSALS AND BANCTIOH. 9 

" Similar advantages might be derived by conveying water into the 
Guntur Circar by which a greater portion of the eastern part, whioh is 
very low, might be appropriated to the cultivation of rice. 

" I have already remarked that by means of the aqueduct the adjacent 
fields might be watered at all seasons. This appears to me very practi- 
cable, as there is always a considerable stream of water in the Kistna; 
sufficient, I will venture to say, to replace the loss by evaporation from the 
water that would be retained by the dam, as well as to afford a sufficient 
supply for the aqueducts throughout the year, from which evidently very 
great advantages would arise in the culture of rice, because those parts 
contiguous to the aqueduct might be made to yield two or more crops a 
year as in the Tanjore and other well- watered countries ; and I might add 
that all these advantages of water will be found of very material use in the 
cultivation of several important articles of commerce, such as sugar, indigo 
and others which it is unnecessary to specify. 

" It is needless further to remark upon the advantages to be derived from 
the proposed dam. I will, therefore, finally add that it is my opinion it 
may be considered as the grand repository of water for the Masulipatam 
and Guntdr Circars placed in a most eligible situation, and receiving the 
benefits of both the Malabar and Coromandel monsoons. 

" A dam to resist such a body of water and such a torrent as that of the 
Kitftna must be constructed entirely of stone. Works of this nature I have 
seen at Seringapatam, where there are three dams across the Can very 
within the space of fifteen miles, which have been formed for the purpose 
of watering a very inconsiderable strip of paddy fields on each side of the 
river : perhaps two-thirds of the labour required in forming these dams 
from which, comparatively, so little benefit is derived, would produce all 
the advantages I have stated, and effectually prevent in future those melan- 
choly consequences which have always attended a failure of rain in the 
Circars. 

" But as to the probable expense of such a work it is impossible to form 
any judgment without a minute examination of this part of the river, and a 
thorough consideration of all the various circumstances connected with suoh 
an undertaking. I will, therefore, only observe that in my humble opinion 
the expense cannot be put in competition with the great advantages whioh 
would accrue from the accomplishment of such a work." 

The Government referred the matter for investigation and report to its 

" Astronomer," Mr. Michael Topping, who * u was 
Mr. Topping's letters, , 

employed for nearly three years in a survey of the 

localities, and assisted by Captain Caldwell of the Engineers had minutely 

• From letter, 25th Angnst 1836, from the Inspect or- General of Civil Estimates, to 
the Chief Secretary to Government. 

8 



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10 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

surveyed and levelled the Kistna from Masulipatam to Inootallah, a 
distance of nearly 110 miles, as well as the country between the Kistna 
and the Godavery by EUore and down the G-odavery from Talapoody to 
Coringa, when the completion of the work was retarded by the want of 
proper instruments and the death of Mr. Topping " at Masulipatam in 
1796. Between 1793 and 1795 Mr. Topping addressed three letters to 
G-overnment on the subject, all of which are of such interest that extracts 
are given from them. 

To 

The Hon'ble Sir Oharlbs Oaklby, Bart. } 

Governor and President in Council, Fort St. George. 

Hon'blb Sib, 

" I have duly received Mr. Secretary Clerk's letters of the 5th December 
and 19th January last, together with their enclosures ; and, as I have 
formerly seen both the Guntiir and Masulipatam Circars, confess myself 
inclined to believe that the proposed object of " appropriating the waters of 
" the Godavery and Kistna to the purposes of cultivation " is by no means 
an impracticable one. 

" Since receiving the Hon'ble Board's commands, and the letters to 
Government of Captain Beatson, I have visited the Tan j ore anient, and the 
banks of the Cauvery contiguous to it ; which river, by a judicious manage- 
ment of its waters, and the adjacent slope of the Coleroon, is a well-known 
source of fertility in the Rajah's dominions. This happy object is, I find, 
effected by taking advantage of a situation where the two rivers have nearly 
a parallel direction to each other; and where their distance asunder is 
not great. At this critical place the Cauvery (the bed of which is consider- 
ably higher than that of the Coleroon, and above the level of the Tanjore 
country in general) is confined to its channel by an artificial mound of 
earth, called an aniout ; in the centre of which a sluice of solid masonry is 
built for the purpose of discharging the superfluous water, and preventing 
its inundating the country south of it ; while a sufficient quantity is, by the 
same means, retained for the purposes of cultivation. 

" I have little doubt but that situations may be found in the Circars 
favourable to a similar management of one or both rivers ; for the northern 
rivers are much larger than the Cauvery ; and branched, or capable of being 
branched, into similar divisions, from the general flatness of the country 
through which they flow i should this, however, not be exactly the case, 
some other disposition of them might probably be contrived that would 
equally answer the great and humane purposes of Government — prevent 
future misery to the inhabitants, and loss to the revenues of the Honour* 
able Company. 



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KISTNA ANICT7T, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. ll 

" But, in order to enable me to form a more correct judgment on this 
important question, it will be necessary to examine with attention the rivers 
Godavery and Kietna, and their adjacent territory ; and this service I shall 
enter upon with an anxious zeal for its success, as soon as I am honoured 
with the commands of Government for commencing it. 

I am, Hon'ble Sir, 

With great respect, 

Your most faithful and obedient servant, 
Madras, Michael Topping." 

Srd March 1793. 



Extracts from a letter, dated 1 4th February 1794, from Mr. Michael Topping , to 

the Hon'ble 8ir C. Oakley, Bart., President in Council, Fort St. George. 

# # # ♦ 

" These rivers Kistna and Godavery, although they contain but littk 
water in the cool season, are well known to swell annually with the periodical 
rains that fall between the months of June and November on the western 
side of India and to flow through the Company's district in a copious stream, 
even at seasons when the countries through which they pass are parched 
up with drought, and desolated with famine : could therefore their waters, 
by artificial means, be diverted through the adjacent country, the advan- 
tage would be great to the inhabitants and to the Company ; indeed of far 
more important benefit to cultivation, than the method, necessity has taught 
the natives of these more southern districts to adopt, of the formation of 
separate tanks, or reservoirs ; which, depending entirely on the immediate 
rain of the monsoon for their supply, when that is scanty are deficient of 
course ; whereas the copious streams furnished by these never-failing 
torrents which at present run in waste to the sea, would be even more than 
an ample supply during the driest and most deficient season for Tain. 

" 3. The question therefore proposed to my consideration being, whether 
the waters of the Kistna or Godavery could be brought to overflow and 
fertilize the adjacent country, my first object has been to examine the 
former of these rivers, and by an accurate survey to determine, with the 
most scrupulous exactness, the relative height of its waters at stated places, 
both when the river is full and rapid, and when at its lowest ebb, and I 
resolved, for various reasons, to commence these operations at Baizwarah, 
and to continue them upward, in the hope of finding a sufficient rise for the 
formation of an artificial canal that, in the course of a few miles digging, 
might bring the waters gradually upon the surface of the adjacent country. 



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12 KISTNA DELTA ENGHsTEEBING HI8T0EY. 

"7. Where the dope of a river is considerable, and the country adjacent 
to it in other respects favourable to the formation of an artificial canal, its 
waters may, by this method, be brought in the most natural manner to 
overflow the cultivated lands : when, however, the slope of a river is scanty 
and inconsiderable, and its waters lie deep beneath its banks (as appears to 
be the case with the Kistna), it will require a great length of artificial 
canal to be cut before this purpose can be effected, unless the waters of the 
river be kept up by strong dams, thrown across it in places judiciously 
chosen for suoh purposes." 

"8. It is certainly a very desirable thing to avoid the expense and 
trouble of constructing dams, which though to be seen for like purposes on 
several parts of the Cauvery, would not be easily made across so large and 
deep a river as the Kistna. Whether or no they can be dispensed with, 
it is not in my power at present to decide. I shall, however, in the 
course of next season, by a continuation of my series of levels, spare no 
pains to determine this question, which is of the utmost importance to the 
object before us." * * * * 



Extracts from a letter, dated Masulipatam 9th September 1795, from Mr. 
Topping, to the Eight Horible Lord JBbbart, Governor of Fort St. George. 

" I have the honour to transmit to Government a ohart of the lower divi- 
sion of the Kistna ; and a chart, exhibiting a series of levels from the sea-gate 
at Masulipatam to the permanent term at Bezoara. This work completes the 
Kistna, from its several entrances to beyond Muctcdah — a distance of near 
one hundred and ten miles from the sea ; and furnishes an accurate deter- 
mination of the levels of the adjacent territory to that farthest inland 
point. # # ♦ # 

" I shall now state a few particulars in explanation of the work before 
us. 

" The accompanying series of levels has been carried on independently of 
the survey of the Kistna ; and for a very obvious reason — that of obtaining 
greater accuracy in it, by shortening the distance between its extreme terms. 
The first term of this process is a fixed stone forming the cill or threshold of 
the sea-gate of the Fort of Masulipatam. The last is that of the permanent 
term at Bezoara, established by myself last year, as a terminating point of 
my former series from Muctalah to that place. The whole of this distance 
has been measured with the chain ; and the levels (as became peculiarly 
necessary in so long a series) have been taken with a painful attention to 
accuracy, and the preventing of errors. • # # # 

" As to the result of this second series of levels, it will appear (by the 
chart) that the permanent term on Bezoara green is above that at the sea- 
gate of Masulipatam ft. 69-4 6 in a distance of about 44* miles. But the top 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. t3 

of the stone at Bezoara was 14 feet above the surface of the water in the 
Kistna on the day the series was concluded (14th August 1794) and the 
lower, or sea-gate term is fire feet above low-water mark at Masulipatam. 
The height of the water in the Kistna, on that day at Bezoara above 
the level of low-water at Masulipatam will therefore be easily determined 
thus : 

59-5 ft. -H ft. +5^ _ 13i ^ehee = the average slope or fall par mils 



44* 
of the surface of the water in the Kistna on that day, between Bezoara 

and Masulipatam. This is much the same as was found (by the former 

Beries) to have place between Muctalah and Bezoara. 

"lam now under the necessity of acquainting Government with a cir- 
cumstance that is likely to retard this, and every other similar operation in 
this country, whatever may be its magnitude or importance. This, my Lord, 
is a want of proper instruments for the indispensable prooess (where water 
is concerned) of taking levels. We have, hitherto, been in possession of two 
levelling instruments only ; one of which was lent me (upon application to 
the late Governor-General, the Eight Honourable Marquis Cornwallis) by 
Colonel Cameron of the Bengal establishment. The Colonel has, however, 
sent for his instrument, so that we have now no reliance but on receiving 
from Europe those I applied for by indent bearing date 26th February 1793, 
very soon after the surveys were ordered to be undertaken." 

On this last letter was passed the following order of G-overnment : — 
"Ordered that the plan and survey mentioned by Mr. Topping, 
together with copy of his letter, be forwarded to the Honourable the Court 
of Directors by the present despatch." 

And there the matter ended, as far as can be traced, for nearly half a 
century. 

In 1832-33 a terrible famine devastated a great part of the Madras 
Presidency. Through the very heart of the area 

1882^38 famln0 of where the distress was greatest and human beings 
were dying by hundreds of thousands, because their 

crops had failed from drought, the Kistna was rolling down enormous 

quantities of water to the sea. 

In the Ghintur District, lying on the right side of the river, part of 
which is now known as the " Western Delta," " not * less than 200,000 " 
persons perished " by starvation and by the fever which followed the 

• Paragraph 290 of " First Report of Madras Publio Works Commission," 



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14 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

famine," whilst on the other side of the river in what is now known as 
the u Eastern Delta," an officer * wrote thus : — 

" The Europeans throughout the country have subscribed liberally 
to feed as many of the poor starving wretches as possible, and by this 
means ten thousand are daily fed in Masulipatam alone. But ten times 
that number are still famishing and hundreds die daily, literally of 
starvation. The swamp around the fort is found each morning strewed 
with the bodies, of those who have died during the night ; and although 
a strong body of police are constantly employed in collecting the dead 
and throwing them into a huge pit prepared for the purpose, they cannot 
succeed in keeping the ground clear, and numbers of bodies are left to 
be devoured by dogs and vultures. 

" The description in the ' Siege of Corinth ' of the dogs gnawing 
human skulls is mild compared to the scenes of horror we are daily forced 
to witness in our morning and evening rides " ; he adds some further 
and even more gruesome details. 

This fearful year was followed by several unfavourable ones, and 

the effects on the " Northern Circars " compelled 
Suggestions for chan- .. , . 

nels from the Kistna. attention to all possible means of lessening the 

unmitigated dependance of all their crops on the 
capricious local rainfall. Accordingly, from time to time during the next 
few years various suggestions were made, and in some instances carried 
out, for channels from the main rivers to irrigate small areas of land, till 
at last, as regards the Kistna District, we find in 1839 the recommen- 
dations of Major Beatson and Mr. Topping, made 44 years previously, 
again brought to notice in a report from Captain Buckle, " Civil 
Engineer, Second Division," from which the following are extracts : — 
"8. There are two principles on which channels may be led from the 

Kistnah, and which have remained disregarded on 
*rti uc e ■ record for nearly half a century : the one pointed out 

by General Beatson, of throwing an annicut across 
the river, so as to connect the Seetanagarum with the Baizwarah hill, and 
thus dam up the water to a level which should command the whole of 
the country on both sides of the river, over which it might be distributed 
with ease by a well arranged series of channels. To this plan, the only objec- 
tion is expense ; the work would be a stupendous one ; still it is one which 
would, beyond all doubt, repay its cost, provided only that Government 



• Lieutenant W. Campbell, Her Majesty's 62nd Begiment j see " Mackenzie's 
Manual oj the Kistna Diitrict." 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 15 

oonld ensure a proper administration of the revenue details which should 
accompany it. 

"9. To accomplish a dam 1,300 yards long and seven yards high, includ- 
ing the foundation, ought not to defy the executive powers of the country, 
where the material also is all found at hand, and where it might speedily be 
prepared for the work by the most ordinary blasting processes, nor would it 
be difficult to submit a project and estimate for the object based on practical 
data ; but unless it can be shown that Government would reap any benefit 
from the work, either directly or indirectly, it would be a mere waste of 
time to enter on a discussion of the plan of operations to be pursued. 
* * # * 

"40. The whole sweep of the Kistnah, as it traverses the boundary of the 
district, measures about 230 miles, but the breadth of the district taken 
from where the river enters Palnaud across to the sea, near Baupetlah, is 
only 90 miles : consequently as has been noticed by Mr. Topping, there is a 
most favorable fall of the country in that direction, but all advantages from 
this source appear to be cut off by the ranges of hills bordering the Kistnah. 
Judging from the delineations of which in the surveys, and from the course 
of all the nullahs in Palnaud, as well as from inspections made in that part 
of the country, there seems but little probability of its being possible to 
draw a supply from the Kistnah on the west side of the district. The whole 
Palnaud may be said to fall towards the Kistnah, so that of course the east 
boundary which divides it from Guntoor is very high. The Kistnah, in 
fact, flows along a valley receiving the drainage of the Hyderabad country 
on the one side, and of Palnaud on the other. The only place of the 
slightest promise for a cut from the river which I could discern, was 
towards Mucktalah, and even there all the land near it proved to be very high, 
as well as being hilly and stony. But the difficulties connected with the 
river do not cease even here, for in addition to its running along a hollow, 
its own bed is very deep, in some parts sixty feet, and even eighty feet 
below the lip of its banks : consequently to keep the river full in this part 
of its course would demand an aunicut of prodigious dimensions, and if we 
suppose such a work to be constructed, still but little benefit would be 
derived from it, because as the country rises from the river, the water would 
not even then be high enough to irrigate it, and the only effect of such an 
annicut would be to force back the nullahs which fall into the river, and 
cause them to overflow in parts : in fact, nothing but danger would accrue 
from such a measure. This hypothetical annicut, indeed, either in or near 
Palnaud, would be impracticable, the risk that would accompany its execu- 
tion having no probable advantages to justify the attempt. Having there- 
fore seen that it would be impossible to convey a channel inland from the 
river, owing to the elevation of the country bordering it, it would also prove 
extremely diffi cult to conduct a 'channel parallel with the river, because 



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16 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

there would still be the same necessity for an annicnt ; while the channel, 
in its course, would be interrupted by all the water courses falling into the 
Kistnah, as well as by the high ridges between them : nor are there any 
places on the banks adapted for irrigation until the Kistnah approaches 
Baizwarah. 

"41. There is nothing, therefore, to invite such an undertaking, though 
it is not unlikely that a ohannel, on a reduoed scale, might be opened with 
good effect from a little below Amarawutty, keeping it, for some distance 
in the river, attached to the bank, as is not uncommonly done in this 
oountry. 

"42. At Chintapully, I may observe, which is about 35 miles above 
Baizwarah, or 100 miles from the sea, there is a remarkable contraction in 
the passage of the Kistnah, its width decreasing suddenly to about 300 
yards ; but as might be expected, it is proportionately deep ; even in the dry 
season the water stands there from fifty to sixty feet deep in some spots, 
while during the freshes the depth is from thirty to forty feet more ; so 
that, however favorable the breadth might appear, such a site as this could 
hardly be contemplated for an annicnt, even were the nature of the country 
such as could be traversed by a channel. In short, the conclusion at which 
I reluctantly arrive, as regards the Guntoor side of the Kistnah, is precisely 
the same as that formed by Major Beatson, in regard to the north bank, 
namely, that from the whole upper course of the river, until it arrives within 
10 or 15 miles of Baizwarah, it would be impracticable to lead off a 
ohannel ; the reason being the same in both cases, high banks to the river, 
increasing in elevation as they recede from it, and the succession of ridges 
and vallies through whioh the path of the river lies. 

"52. The undertaking, however, which would benefit the oountry in the 
most extensive and permanent manner would be an annicnt at Baizwarah, 
which would at once supply both sides of the river with water for irrigation, 
and thus for ever remove the prospect of famine, for want of the means of 
raising paddy ; for so long as the courses of the seasons endure, the quantity 
of water which, even in the most unfavorable years, flows past between 
the Baizwarah and Seetanagaram hills, would suffice for the cultivation of 
very many square miles." 

This report Captain Buckle seems to have supplemented by andher 

with various suggestions for opening channels from 

CaptainBiw • ■ ^ e jfistna by which, when the river was high, water 

would flow to existing drainages and depressions 

in the delta, thus affording rough means of irrigation. No copy of this 

second report can however be found. Captain 

Board to OoverSlnt* Buckle's two reports were in January 1840 sent to 

Government by the Board of Eevenue with a letter 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 17 

which deals chiefly with the minor means of irrigation referred to, but 
has also the following paragraphs bearing on the suggestion for an 
Anicut at Bezwada : — 

Extracts from letter No. 45, dated 30 th January 1840, from the Board of 
Revenue to Government. 

" 22. The undertaking, however, of all others which would most exten- 
sively and permanently benefit the country and people would be an anicut 
across the Kistna at Baizwarah. This would at once seoure an abundant 
and never failing supply of water for the whole country between the Kistna 
and Gdddvari as well as on the south bank of the former river as far as the 
sea, and remove all apprehension of famine in future ; for even in the most 
unfavourable seasons, the quantity of water that flows paat Baizwarah is 
ample for that purpose, if the means for raising it to the required height, and 
distributing it over the fields existed. 

" 23. The width of the Kistna at Baizwarah is, by a contraction of its bed 
at that spot, reduced to 1,300 yards, and the height to which it appears it 
would be necessary to raise the anicut is only 7 yards inoluding its founda- 
tions, the expense, however, of such a work would be very great, and its 
construction attended with vast labour and many difficulties, but there 
seems nothing to render success in the least degree questionable, if the 
requisite means are available. There is no obstacle either in the character 
of the river or nature of the locality, which might not be readily overcome 
by skill and science, and the expense, it is probable, would not be so very 
large as at first may appear, for there is abundance of materials procurable 
from the adjoining hills, and labour is reasonable. The expediency would 
appear to be equally unquestionable if the country to be benefited by it 
were under the management of the Government, and the undertaking in all 
its branches, including the requisite revenue arrangements, could be carried 
out and matured by its officers. 

" 24. But as long as the permanent system on its present footing exists, 
and the zamindars or landholders continue to be, as they now are, an 
insurmountable impediment to any extended and general system of improve- 
ment, the benefits from suoh a work would be far from commensurate with 
its cost. 

* ♦ * * 

"28. There are two ways in which the Masulipatam district may be 
irrigated from the Kistna, either by an anicut thrown across the river 
at Baizwarah, or by water-courses led off from it without the aid of an anicut. 
The first of these is the only effectual and complete mode of attaining this 
very important object, and by its adoption, Masulipatam might, like Tanjore, 
be converted into a garden to serve as a granary to the adjoining country 

c 



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18 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

in seasons of scarcity, but from causes already explained, it is at present 
impracticable, and need not therefore be discussed." 

And then in paragraph 39 of the letter, the disappointing conclusion 
is arrived at that " very large and costly works like an Aniout at 
Baizwarah are clearly inexpedient and impracticable under existing 
circumstances." 

That seemed as if it would be the end of the matter for many a long 

year at all events, but fortunately in 1844 Major 
Sir Arthur Cotton J J . 

advocate! construction ( now General Sir Arthur) Cotton, to whom Tan j ore 
of Anient across the owed the construction of the Coleroon Aniouts 

which had done such wonders for that district, was 
sent to report on the feasibility of putting an Anicut across the G-6d4- 
vari ; he so enthusiastically recommended the execution of the work that 
attention was once again foroibly directed to the advisability of a 
similar work across the Kistna, and the matter was in 1845 referred for 
consideration to the " Civil Engineer, Second Division," Captain Lake, 
who ten years later, so distinguished himself in the defence of Ears, and 
became Sir H. Atwell Lake, k.c.b. 

He sent in his report on 3rd July 1847. It commences, with 

references to what had been written on the subject 
Captain Lake s before, and then deals at length with the questions 

of " site, nature and expenses of the structure and 
the benefit to be derived from it." The more important paragraphs of 
the report bearing on these points are given below : — 

"11. In searching for a site for the work, the place that most naturally 
presents itself is opposite to Baizwarah, where the river narrows to between 
1,000 and 1,100 yards, and where there are two large hills, one on either 
side and close to the river's bank. I have ascertained from the levels that 
I have taken, that a moderately high annicnt here would command the 
whole of the Delta land of both the Guntoor and Masnlipatam districts, and 
there can be no doubt that the many natural facilities for the construction 
of the work, which present themselves at this spot, render it, in every 
respect, the most desirable site. 

" 12. I shall proceed to show, how very inexpedient it would be to attempt 
placing the work higher up the river, with a view to bringing a more 
extensive tract of land under its influence. The river immediately above 
Baizwarah begins to widen very considerably, and at Ebramapatam, for 
instance, which is only about eight miles higher up, the width is nearly 
3,000 yards. It will thus be seen, that a work placed here would be nearly 
three times the length of one at Baizwarah ; but there are other and greater 



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SEETANAGRUM HILL 



• X 



a 



»'*>,> 






,l'h "^ "''■ ' ^^^ifc. 






r /'h'J'I 






,>^x 



SEETANAGRUM HILL 



SECTION i 

FROM SEETANAGRUM HIL 
SHC 

PF 

(Si 





a Lock 

b Head Sluice of the Main channel 



Reg. No. 3756 
Copies 4J0 



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N THROUGH THE RIVER KISTNA 
-_l_ IN A DIRECTION N. 7*E TOWARDS BAIZWARAH 
SOWING THE SITE OF THE 

PROPOSED ANICUT. 



jbmitted by Captain Atwell Lake. 
v-'ith his Letter 3rd. July 1847) 



BAIZWARAH HILL 




R s r. R 









00; so fso ! so "- so j so mo^ 



26 Register ^^Hj^jtWsS 








BAIZWARAH HILL 



L^GITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH THE ANICUT. 
HIGHEST FLOOD 

i ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 H 1 1 ' m 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 r M 1 1 , i i.j.frr ! i i i : 1 1 1 1 1 1 ; 1 1 1 j ' HtiiJ ■ ,. n 1 1 i ■ U 1 1 1 1 1 1 : : 1 1 1 1 ; 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 : 1 1 : 1 1 n 





LEVEL OF THE SEA AT HIGH WATER 






Scale to distances 

-li— .— t— ^jg i i ■ *r > 



(Signed) Atwell Lake. Captain, 
Civil Engineer, 2nd Division 



Scale to heights 
2 so 100 

Tnfci»l I '- 1 I I I ! i=ai (From Vol. IV Profl. papers Madras Engineers.) 



Photo-Print Survey. Office Madras 
1897 



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KlSTNA ANtCUT, &C. — PKOFOSAtS AND SANCTION. 19 

objections to the measure. In the map, marked No. 1, which accompanies 
this report, theparts coloured light green show the extent of land not more 
than 40 or 50 feet above the level of the sea, and which may be all brought 
under the influence of an annicut at Baizwarah. Above this boundary, as I 
before stated, the country raises 10 or more feet in a mile ; and to include, 
therefore, an extra belt of land only one mile in width, or an area of about 
100 square miles, to be irrigated by means of an annicut, the work would 
have to be placed about 13J miles higher up the river, taking the fall of 
the surface of the river above Baizwarah at about 13 inches per mile, and 
allowing the channels a fall of three inches per mile. 

"13. Owing to the country above the parallel of Baizwarah rising so 
rapidly, it is evident that, il the annicut be placed higher up, the channels 
must be formed by deep cuttings, parallel, or nearly so, to the course of the 
river, almost as far as the Baizwarah hill, and the expense of this, as will be 
seen by the following calculation, would be enormous. Supposing that the 
channel has a fall of three inches per mile, and that the quantity of water 
required for each acre be taken at 1 J cubic yards per hour (or deducting £ 
for waste land, 760 cubic yards for every square mile)— now, the mean 
velocity of water at four yards depth, with the fall above given, being about 
1,400 yards per hour, the required section would be 1,600 square yards, 
which, with a depth of four yards, would give a breadth of 400 yards. 
With this breadth and, we will 6ay, a depth of three yards of cutting, there 
would be an excavation of 2,100,000 cubic yards (in round numbers) which, 
at eight pice per cubic yard, would cost about 86,000 rupees per mile ; and 
this is supposing you meet with nothing but plain cutting through alluvial 
soil. 

" 14. Taking also into consideration that an annicut higher up than Baiz* 
warah would, from the great increase in the length of the work, as well as 
the extra expense that would be incurred by building it at a spot where 
there are not so many advantages with respect to the preparation of mate* 
rials, natural wing walls, &c, cost nearly double the amount, I do not 
suppose that a doubt can exist as to this being the most favorable site : 
but, as it may possibly be urged that a dam might be placed very much 
higher up, so as to command the Palnaud in the Guntoor district, I shall 
briefly consider this point. 

# * # # 

" 16. I may observe, that I have not only visited and carefully inspected 
the several sites above alluded to (with the exception of Muctalah, where I 
considered it quite unnecessary to go), but that I have had sections of the 
river taken in several places above Baizwarah, as well as lines of levels, 
where required, additional to those which I found in my office ; and, after 
mature deliberation, I am decidedly of opinion that it would be by no means 
expedient to recommend the construction of an annicut any where but on 



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20 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

the site I have fixed upon. It appears to me, and will, I imagine, 
appear to all who consider the subject in connexion with the investigation 
I have made, quite evident that the irrigation of the upper portion of the 
districts, or the land lying on a higher level than that which an annicut at 
Baizwarah will command, must form altogether a separate project, entirely 
independent of the irrigation of the Delta ; for it would be perfectly out of 
the question to attempt to lead the water, which would be required for the 
lower portion of the districts, from such a distance up the river as it would 
be necessary to proceed to, in order to place an annicut which would com- 
mand the upper tract of country, rising as it does 10, 20 and even 30 feet a 
mile. Having I trust, satisfactorily explained my reasons for the selection 
of the site, I shall proceed to the next point to be discussed, viz., the nature 
and expense of the work, as well as the means proposed for its execution. 

"17. I will preface this portion of my report by stating, that the hill at 
Baizwarah, and that nearly opposite to it, at Seetanagrum, afford an 
unlimited supply of most excellent material, being composed of a species of 
granite. I propose, therefore, as the first step in the undertaking, to 
throw in a mass of stone, in large blocks, until the upper surface, to which 
I would give a breadth of 9 yards, arrived at the level of the summer 
water ; giving the base a slope of four times the height, which would be 
regulated by the section of the river. This rough dam might, I should 
imagine, with some exertion, be thrown up in one season, and would then 
be left to settle during the freshes. On the top of this dam, front and rear 
retaining walls will be built of rubble stone in chunam, and the space 
between filled in with rough stone. Over this there will be a covering l\ 
feet thick of rubble masonry, giving it a slope, as shown in the plan ; and 
over all another covering of cyclopean work, making the height of the 
body of the work 12 feet, the breadth at bottom 72 feet, and at top 27 feet. 
The crown of the work would thus be 18 feet below the term A on the 
Seetanagrum Register, the highest, known level of the river, or 46 feet, 
above the level of the sea at high water. In order, however, to give a 
greater command to the annicut, I propose to let dam stones 3 feet apart, 
and 2 feet in height above the crown, into the body of the work, and the 
intermediate spaces can be either filled up with a masonry wall or wooden 
shutters, as may be found most convenient. The hill at Seetanagrum will 
form a natural wing wall for the southern extremity of the work ; but, as I 
propose placing it perpendicular to the stream, it will be necessary to 
connect the other, or northern end, with the Baizwarah hill, by means of a 
masonry wing wall, and earthen embankment revetted with stone, of no 
considerable length. There will be three sets of Bluices in the annicut, each 
containing 26 vents, 6 feet in breadth by 5 feet in height, with shutters 
made in the manner shown in the plan of the head sluice, which will render 
them more manageable than when formed, as is usual, of one piece. In 



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SECTIONS THRO* THE BODY OF THE I 

(Submitted by Captain Atweii Lake, with I 
AVERAGE TRANSVERSE SECTIONS THRO* £ 



LEVEL OF SUMMER WATER 




AVERAGE TRANSVERSE SECTIONS THRO'i 



LEVEL OF SUMMER WATER 




TRANSVERSE SECTION THRO' 




' P 5 JO 20 30 



Weg. No. 3757. 
Copies 410 



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OF THE PROPOSED KISTNA ANTCUT. 

Lake, wfth his Letter 3rd. July 1847.) 

sthwJthofthe bodyoftheanicut, 



(From Vol. IV Profl. papers Madras engineers.) 




THR^THOFTHE BODY OFTHEANICUT. 




THRO 1 AN UNDER SLUICE. 




(Sfened) AtwwttLak*. Captain, 

Civil Engineer. 2nd Division . 

Photo-Print Survey. Office Madras. 
1897. 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 2i 

order to render the rough dam as water tight as possible, clay will be thrown 
in front of the work as it progresses, and the sluices will be lined with 
cnt-Btone in chnnam. 

# # # * 

u 19. Two main channels must be taken off immediately above the work, 
and at the head of each there will be a sluice of 24 vents, 6 feet by 9, 
with a lock attached, and a bridge over all ; but at present I do not propose 
the construction of locks into the river, as the 'traffic, by boats is so very trifling, 
and there can be no doubt that, when the channels are excavated, it will be 
found better to take advantage of them than of the river below the annicut. 
On the Guntoor side, the present Toongabuddra channel, which has been 
lately completed and brought into operation, will, with very considerable 
enlargement, form the main channel to that district ; and for the district of 
Masulipatam, a cut taken from immediately above the north wing wall, 
direct into the Boodemair, as shown in the plan, will be the main channel. 
There are, of course, many minor works connected with this project, which 
must be treated of in a separate place, particularly those for the better 
irrigation of the Deevy Pergunnah, in the Masulipatam district, the necessity 
and advantage of which will be fully explained hereafter. 

* # # # 

" 22. I shall now proceed to the consideration of the benefits that will be 
derived from the project, and trust to be able to prove most satisfactorily, 
that they will be such as fully to warrant even a far greater expenditure. 
In discussing this portion of my subject, I necessarily lean a good deal upon 
the information afforded me by the Collectors of Masulipatam and Guntoor, 
who have, I am perfectly aware, taken no ordinary pains to furnish it in 
as correct a form as possible ; but at the same time, my own personal obser- 
vations, as well as the local information I have, from time to time, collected 
during the period I have held the appointment of Civil Engineer of this 
division, enable me to speak with a great degree of confidence, as to the 
favorable results to be expected from the construction of this most important 
work. 

" 23. In order to simplify my report as much as possible, I propose, in 
the first instance, to treat the two districts separately from each other ; and 
I shall commence with that of Guntoor, as being the one which will derive 
the most benefit from the improved irrigation. The tract of land that will 
be brought under the influence of the annicut, according to the measure- 
ment taken on the map, may be said to contain about 1,100 square miles, 
or, deducting ^th for waste land, sand drifts, &c, the extent of country 
to be irrigated may be taken, in round numbers, at about 500,000 acres, 
which agrees quite nearly enough with the returns furnished by the 
Collector. The revenue derived from this tract of land, under the great 
disadvantage of an irregular supply of water, averaged for the five years 



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22 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 



almost preceding the famine, viz., from 1826 to 1830 inclusive, about 
7,28,000 rupees, and for the five years immediately following the famine, or 
from 1833 to 1837 inclusive, the average collection was about 3,80,000 
rupees, being but a little more than one half. The revenue for 1846 was 
about 6,56,000 rupees for the same tract of land, not even equivalent to the 
average collection of the five years preceding the famine, showing that the 
revenue has not yet recovered itself by 60,000 rupees per annum. The loss 
therefore of revenue, consequent upon one year of famine, up to the present 

time may be thus calculated : — 

as. 
7,28,000 



Average revenue, prior to the famine 

Do. of the two years of famine 

Revenue of the year, after the famine 

Do. of the year, 1846 

Loss of revenue in the 1st year, after the famine 
Do. in 1846 



3,22,000 
2,48,000 
6,56,000 
4,80,000 
72,000 



Mean loss 

Number of years since the famine 



... 2,76,000 
15 



Rupees ... 41,40,000 



showing a total loss of land revenue alone, within the tract commanded by 
the proposed annicut, of Es. 41,40,000. To this should be added the loss 
in the other branches of revenue, which, of course, suffered in consequence 
of the impoverished condition of the people. But further, had this tract 
produced the crop which it would have done had the annicut been then in 
existence, it is evident that the famine, which raged throughout the whole 
of the upper part of the district, would have amounted to little more than a 
scarcity ; as that tract also would have been supplied with grain, at com- 
paratively moderate prices from the alluvial country ; and thus the immense 
loss of revenue during the subsequent years, owing to the diminution in the 
number, and the impoverishment of the population in the upper tract, 
would have been almost entirely saved. This will be more distinctly shown 
by the actual total collections of the district during the period under review : — 



Average total Revenue, prior to the famine 
Do. do. of two years of famine 

Do. do. of the year after the famine 

Average of the four subsequent years 

Do. four next years 

Do. four do. up to 1846 

Falling off of revenue in consequence of famine 

Deficiency of revenue at the present time 

Average loss of revenue during 15 years 

Total loss up to 1846 



E8. 

14,60,000 
7,43,000 
5,77,000 
8,86,000 

10,65,000 

11,36,000 
8,83,000 
2,24,000 
6,53,000 

82,95,000 



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KIBTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 23 

" Bat it may be observed, that this is only a comparison of this period 
with, that preceding, when under so imperfect a system of irrigation, and 
when the supply depended so entirely upon the high freshes of the river. 
It must, however, be also taken into consideration "that, had the annicut 
been built at that time, the revenue instead of falling off, as it has done, 
would have undoubtedly been steadily on the increase up to the present 
moment, so that the total difference between the actual collections and what 
might have been fairly expected, would amount to not less than 120 lacs, 
or nearly a million and a quarter sterling. Supposing then, that 12 lacs of 
rupees would complete the project now brought before the notice of Govern- 
ment, half of thft$ sum, or six lacs, the amount of expense that w oold be 
borne by the district of Guntoor, would have been sufficient to have made 
this difference. 

"24. But of immeasurably greater importance than all this, is the fearful 
loss of life which took place during the famine in the Guntoor district, 
which would assuredly have been avoided, had the supply of water during 
that period been regular and sufficient ; and I have every reason to believe 
that, though the river did not come down with its usual fresh, there was 
water enough to have been turned into the district, had it been dammed up 
by means of an annicut. In an interesting article written by J. P. Thomas, 
Esq., of the Civil Service, in the 'Madras Journal of Literature and 
Science,' dated April 1839, it is stated that, during the famine of 1832, 
more than one-third of the inhabitants of the Guntoor district, or upwards 
of 200,000 persons perished within a short period, out of a population of 
little more than 500,000. Mr. Thomas further adds that ' the returns of 
population in the year prior to the famine give 512,000, in the year sub- 
sequent, but one half or 255,000 ; and four years later, but 267,000 ; and 
it is asserted that there was little or no emigration. Previous famines have 
also been estimated to have destroyed one-third of the inhabitants of those 
districts in which drought was general, and we might perhaps fairly assume 
this proportion, as the ratio of mortality in famines in India, when they are 
left to work out their natural effects unchecked.' * # * 

" 25. I shall next endeavour to show the increase to the revenue in the 
Guntoor district whioh may be expected in consequence of the project now 
brought to the notice of Government. I have before stated, that the rev- 
enue which had so greatly fallen off in consequence of the famine, has not 
yet recovered itself. Last year's collection from the tract of country to 
which I am particularly alluding, viz., that which will be brought under 
the influence of the annicut, was about 6,60,000 rupees ; and it will be 
seen by the Collector's statement in Appendix E, that the sist on the extent 
of land which may be brought under wet cultivation, calculated at the 
average price per acre for the present year, would amount to 29,00,000 
(in round numbers). The increase, therefore, in revenue mighlbe fairly 



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24 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

stated at 22,40,000 rupees, and this is calculated under supposition that the 
ryots get but one crop from their lands during the year, and that nothing 
but paddy is grown thereon. Whereas, there is no reason whatever, why, 
with the regular and plentiful supply of water, which they will obtain by 
means of the annicut, sugar-cane should not be grown, as well as a second 
crop of grain. The increase, therefore, under these circumstances, would 
be considerably above what I have stated ; and perhaps in no part of the 
district can such rich land be found aB in this very tract now alluded to. 

" 27. I now proceed to take up the Masulipatam district, and will endeav- 
our to show the advantages it will derive from a better supply of water ; 
and though the results may, perhaps, be not bo favorable as those expected 
in the Guntoor district, they will still be most satisfactory. I must here 
remark, though I shall have to enter more fully on the subject before con- 
cluding my report, that the proposed annicut across the Kistnah must, of 
necessity, be looked upon as connected with the project on which the Civil 
Engineer of the 1st division is at present employed, namely, the construction 
of a similar work across the Godavery. This being the case, I shall not 
include in my project the whole tract of land in the Masulipatam district, 
which might be brought under the influence of the Kistnah annicut ; as a 
large portion of it, that is to say, as far as the Colair lake, will be watered 
by the Godavery. The remaining part, as shown in the map, after deducting 
j>th for waste land, sand-drifts, roads, &c, may be said to embrace a some- 
what similar extent to that calculated on in the Guntoor district, or about 
550,000 acres of very rich land. This, as in the portion of the Guntoor 
district alluded to, includes enam land which, properly speaking, should be 
deducted when calculating the total amount, as it yields no revenue to 
Government ; but it might, at some future time, again revert to the Oircar, 
and it forms, at all events, but a small portion of the whole in either district, 
being in Guntoor £th and in Masulipatam iVth. 

" 28. The statement in the Appendix, marked G, shows the extent of land 
which was brought under cultivation last year, together with the average 
collections during two periods of five years each, prior and subsequent to 
the famine ; and without entering into all the details which I considered 
necessary when reporting on the Guntoor district, I need only direct atten- 
tion to the great fluctuation and falling off in the revenue, which will be 
seen clearly by a reference to the Collector's return above alluded to. The 
total extent of land in this district, which will be commanded by the annicut, 
amounts, as before stated, to about 550,000 acres, which, at five rupees, 
the average rate per acre for wet cultivation, would yield a revenue of 
27,50,000 rupees. I am however inclined to think that this is probably a 
higher average rate than might at first fairly be calculated upon, although 
eventually a still higher one may reasonably be expected, when the irriga- 
tion is complete ; but to avoid showing results greater than may possibly be 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PBOPOSALS AND SANCTION. $5 

realised, I shall take the rate per acre at four rupees, which will make the 
total amount of revenue 22,00,000 rnpees. The collection last year from 
this portion of the district was 4,66,000 rupees : if, therefore, the whole 
extent were brought under wet cultivation, there would be an increase 
in the revenue of nearly 17,50,000 rupees. Doubtless there are certain 
portions of this jtract of land which it might be found inconvenient and 
unadvisable to cultivate with wet crops, and, under any circumstances, it 
must be a work of time to bring the whole of it under cultivation ; but I 
trust that I have already shown enough to prove the immense advantage 
which would result from a plentiful and regular supply of water through- 
out the year. 

"29. I now come to the Deevy* Purgunnah, a rich and formerly 
very fertile part of the district, the revenue from which has so greatly fallen 
off from the want of proper irrigation, that the collection last year only 
amounted to about 71,000 rupees. It will be seen by the statement that 
the area of the Purgunnah is estimated at upwards of 40,000 acres ; and 
the average rate per acre being six rupees, this tract of land alone would, 
if all brought under wet cultivation, yield a revenue of two and-a-half lacs 
of rupees annually, or 1,84,000 rupees above last year's collection, making 
a total increase of revenue in the portion of the Masulipatam district which 
would be commanded by the annicut, of nearly 20 lacs of rupees. In this 
district the growth of sugar and indigo are altogether unknown, but, as in 
Guntoor, there is no reason whatever why both should not be generally 
cultivated. There are so many points of my subject connected with the 
Masulipatam district, exactly similar to those of the Guntoor district, that, 
were I to attempt to enlarge upon them in a like manner, I should be led 
into useless repetition. I may, however, observe that all I have said on the 
subject of the famine in 1832, as regards the ravages it made in Guntoor, 
is applicable to Masulipatam, though in a minor degree ; and the necessity, 
therefore, of adopting measures for preventing, as far as possible, a recur- 
rence of such misery is nearly as great in one as in the other district. 
# * * * 

"31. I trust that I have now fairly shown the advantages which, in a 
pecuniary point of view, are likely to arise from the construction of the 
proposed annicut. The estimate at present submitted, and for which sanc- 
tion is requested, amounts to four lacs and 2,639 rupees, and provides for 
such works as are, in my opinion, necessary to be undertaken in the first 
instance : but further expenditure will, of course, be requisite for complet- 
ing the project to the full extent contemplated. I have prepared a rough 
statement of the expense that will be probably incurred in excavating a 
channel from Baizwarah to Ellore, and another from Baizwarah along the 

* Divi Island, 



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ZO KlSTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

banks of the Ristnah to the Deevy Purgunnah in the Masnlipatam district, 
and for a channel from Seetanagarum, passing near to the town of Guntoor 
in the direction of Addunky, as also for one along the south bank of the 
Kistnah in the Guntoor district. I have likewise made an allowance for 
roads and bridges, as I consider that, in order to render the communication 
in the district perfect, it will be necessary to make branch roads both inland 
and towards the sea. As all the heavy traffic wUl be by means of the 
channels, I have only provided for such roads as will be required for foot 
passengers, light conveyances, cattle, &c. In making them, the drainage 
of the country will also be considerably improved, and the channels them- 
selves will form the main drains. The following statement shows the 
probable amount of all these auxiliary works : — 

RS. 

300 miles of road at 1,000 rupees per mile 3,00,000 

Detail irrigation works, such as channels, sluices, &c. . . . 6,00,000 

Aqueduct to Deevy Purgunnah and adjoining works ... 1,00,000 

Bridge over annicut , 1,00,000 

Embankments, Ac 2,00,000 



13,00,000 



Present estimate 4,00,000 



Total for providing both districts with irrigation, internal 
navigation, roads, bridges and river banks 17,00,000 



" In this statement it will be observed I have included the expense of the 
bridge across the Kistnah, and also that of building an aqueduct across a 
branch of the same river into the Deevy Purgunnah, the details of which 
important work I do not now enter into, but the sum allowed for it will, I 
am convinced, fully cover the expense of its construction. 

" 32. I must now take the opportunity of noticing the very great and 
valuable assistance I have received from Major Cotton, the Civil Engineer 
of the 1st division, in communication with whom my plans and estimates 
have been made out. * • # • 

" 33. It is proposed by Major Cotton and myself to connect the two rivers, 
the Godavery and Kistnah, by a channel meeting at or near Ellore ; one 
half of the expense to be carried to the account of the Godavery project! 
and the other to the one now submitted.' ' * * * 

Before forwarding their report to Government, the Board of Kevenue, 
Sir Arthur CotWi on 21st February 1848, sent it for his " deliberate 
letter about proposed opinion on the whole project " to Major Arthur 
Kiitna Anicut. Cotton, then in the midst of the trials and anxieties 

of the early stages of construction of the great G6davari Anicut, and his 
reply was as follows : — 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 27 

" 1. I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, calling 
for my opinion on the projected Kistnah annicut, with reference to its 
probable stability, if constructed at Baizwarah. 

" 2. I beg to state that this subject has been frequently under my con- 
sideration during the last two years, that I have discussed it on the spot and 
repeatedly with Captain Lake, and also with others ; and I beg to assure 
you that there is not left on my mind the shadow of any objection to the site, 
but quite the contrary, that I consider it an extraordinarily favourable one ; 
and that if, in addition to its other remarkable advantages, it had the only 
other which might appear desirable, viz., that of a rocky bed, instead of a 
sandy one, it would in my view make very little difference, none at all as 
respects the stability of the structure, and only perhaps 50,000 rupees in 
the cost. 

" 3. There is so deep an impression in people's minds respecting a sand 
foundation generally, that it is most difficult to investigate the subject pro- 
perly. There is certainly one defect in sand as a foundation, viz., that if 
running water comes in contact with it, it will be swept away ; but this is 
the only one ; in other respects it is the finest foundation possible ; it is 
indestructible, and incompressible. Of the thousands of works which I have 
seen or executed on a foundation of pure sand I never saw the slightest sign 
of a settlement in any one of them. We must therefore take care to remem- 
ber that there is only one thing to be guarded against in building in sand, 
and that so long as it is protected from the action of running water, no work 
resting in it can possibly fail ; and the remedy for this one defect is as plain 
and easily applied in situations such as this, as could be desired ; it is simply 
to cover the sand, where it would otherwise be exposed to the action of the 
current, with loose stone. With this precaution, where it can be used, I 
consider sand a perfect foundation, and in the present case, loose stones can 
be used in any quantity, at a cost that is not to be compared with the import- 
ance of the work. The size or the quantity of the stone must certainly be 
proportioned to the strength of the current : if this is great, and only small 
stones can be obtained, the quantity must be so increased as that the slope 
of their surface may make up for their want of size. In rivers like these, 
having a velocity of four miles an hour, at the utmost, the largest stone to 
be found in their beds does not exceed two or three ounces ; and these often 
remain for years in the same place. If the surface of the stones had a slope 
of, suppose 20 to 1, they would require to be a pound or two in weight to 
resist the current ; with a higher velocity and greater slope larger stones 
would be required ; but with such velocities as we have to deal with in these 
rivers, unless we make the annicuts very high, very moderate sized stones 
would be sufficient, even with a considerable slope ; while at Baizwarah 
any sized stones can be used, and in any quantities, at, as I have said, an 
expense not to be considered in a work of this importance. Captain Lake 



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28 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY, 

has allowed 1\ annas per cubic yard for his loose stone, and perhaps this is 
not too much for the quantity he has allowed, considering that it includes 
the cost of apparatus ; but I am persuaded that if another lac of rupees were 
to be expended on loose at one, the additional work would not cost more than 
three annas a ton, so that 500,000 tons could be added for one lac. Captain 
Lake has allowed a base of 20 yards, to a height of 6, for the lower side 
of his loose stone work ; if this depth extended across the whole breadth 
of the river, 500,000 cubic yards of stone would allow of the base of the slope 
being extended to 180 yards, or 30 times the height, and making the 
breadth of the whole base of the work 210 yards. I give these calcula- 
tions to show what might be done at a comparatively trifling cost, if it were 
necessary ; and I think it is scarcely possible for any person upon a little 
consideration not to be satisfied that, with such a breadth of stone work 
extended below the annicut, it would be impossible for the water to get at 
the sand on which the body of the work rested, so as to wash it away. 
And it is equally evident that, in such a project, a lac of rupees more or 
less in the cost cannot in the least affect the question. 

" 4. Any how, I should suppose that it must be allowed that it is simply a 
question of the quantity of loose stone, and nothing more ; that is, that with 
a certain quantity of that material, the stability of the work is as certain as 
it could be on any imaginable kind of site ; and further, that that quantity 
can be obtained at a comparatively insignificant cost. 

"5. My own opinion is, that the quantity allowed by Captain Lake will be 
found ample : I should not be at the trouble and expense of filling up any 
hollows in the bed with stone, but would first bring it all to a uniform level 
with sand, and then throw the loose stone in an equal thickness all over the 
bed. For the sand is continually changing about, and where the hollow now 
is, in a year or two there will be a high bank of sand, and on that the anni- 
out would be built. I should, therefore, level the bed with sand to near the 
summer level of the water, and then throw the mass of stone across, matripg 
it of course of a uniform height the first year, however low it might be. 

" 6. The Board desire my opinion respecting the depth of the sand over 
the rock, and the velocity of the river. It will be seen from the above 
remarks that in my view of the case the depth of the sand over the rock 
does not affect the question. I have no doubt that it is very deep, so deep 
that, if it were desirable to have the loose stone resting on the rock, the case 
would be hopeless ; but it will be seen that I decide the question, according 
to my ideas, entirely independent of rock. With respect to the velocity, 
Captain Lake takes it at three miles an hour for the mean of the whole sec- 
tion, and though I have not taken it myself, I feel confident that it cannot 
much exceed this ; my calculation of what it should be from the depth and 
fall per mile, gives a little more than this, about 3}. That it is not muoh 
more is clearly seen by a mere examination of the section ; if there was a 



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XISTNA ANICTJT, &C. — FBOFOSALS AND SANCTION. 29 

high velocity, it is impossible that the sand could stand in a great proportion 
of the breadth of the channel, from 2 to 1 6 feet above the summer level of 
the water, just as it does in all other parts of the river. Were there any 
thing like a high velooity, not a particle of sand could remain at a higher 
level than several feet below the summer level. Where the.Godavery passes 
through the hills, there is not an atom of sand to be seen, and the water 
is 70 or 80 feet deep in the summer. The velocity over the annicut may 
be easily shown. The total section of the channel water in the highest 
floods is 12,000 square yards ; the part of it obstructed by an annicut of the 
height proposed is 4,500 square yardB, or about fths of the channel will 
be obstructed ; the velocity must therefore be increased as three to five, 
for the same quantity that now passes through five parts, must then pass 
through three ; the velocity will consequently be increased from Si to nearly 
six miles per hour, which will be the rate over the work when the river is 
highest. This, however, will not be the time when the velocity will be the 
greatest. According to my calculations, it will be about seven miles an 
hour when the water in the river below the dam stands level with the crown 
of the work, at which time I reckon that the water above will stand three 
feet deep over the top of the work ; but as in this state of the river the body 
of water passing over the dam will be small, its effect upon the loose stone 
work will probably not be so great as when the river is higher, though the 
velocity will then be rather diminished. 

* ♦ ♦ ♦ 

" 9. I think these remarks are sufficient to explain my views respecting 
the proposed site. It will be seen from them that, after every consideration, 
I feel entirely satisfied that the objections to it are entirely imaginary, so 
far as the stability of the work is concerned, and nearly so as respects its 
cost ; while on the other hand, the unlimited supply of stone on both sides 
of the river, at the very edge of the water, is suoh an advantage as would 
not be compensated by having a rocky bed, if the stone had to be conveyed 
one mile. 

"10. In case I should fail to give to others the confidence I feel on this 
subject, I may mention one other point, viz., that as the rough stone dam 
must necessarily be executed in one season, and the building of the solid 
masonry in another, the effect of the current upon the work will be clearly 
seen in good time, and before the principal expense is incurred. " 

The Board took its time about the consideration of these reports, and 
did not send them on to Q-overnment till the following August more 
than a year after the date of Captain Lake's report. The Board's 
forwarding letter was chiefly a recapitulation of the reports, above printed, 
with an expression of opinion that it was " impossible to doubt that a 
work which will place under command of a plentiful irrigation about 



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30 KI8TNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

a million of acres, must, besides immediate handsome returns, produoe 
incalculable ulterior benefits," and it recommended that the plans and 
estimate submitted should be referred to a committee of Engineer and 
Eevenue officers. 

The Government accordingly appointed a committee composed of — 

Committee appointed Captain Buckle whose report ten years previously 

to report on Kiatna had brought the proposal for the anicut again to 

Anient project. notice ^ p&&e H) . Captain Bel]) then p^^ 

Works Secretary to the Board of Eevenue ; Captain Orr then carrying 
out the GhSdavari anicut; Mr. Stokes, Collector of Ghintur; and 
Mr. Forbes, Sub-Collector of Eajahmundry. 

In January 1849 they sent in their report, this and the specification 
and estimate that accompanied it, are given below 
ort in full, as they form the basis on which the work 

was undertaken : — 

"Report of thb Committee upon the Project of an Annicut across 
the Ki8tnah River for the Irrigation of the Districts of 
MA8ULIPATAM and Guntoor. 

" 1. In fulfilling the duty prescribed by Government, the Committee 
have had under consideration the following points : — 
1st. — The general feasibility of the project. 
2nd. — The returns to be expected. 
3rd.— The site. 
4th. — The plan and estimate. 

Feasibility of the project. 

"2. First, it is certain both from levels often taken, and from existing 
facts, that a very extensive tract on each side of the river may be irrigated 
by means of an annicut, placed in any situation, several miles above or below 
Baizwarah. The present channels, the Boodemair and Pulleiroo, on the 
left, and the Toongabuddra and Yellatoor on the right bank, already com- 
mand a large extent of land, when the river rises to a certain height, and 
with the aid of an annicut to render their supply of water continuous, would 
of themselves add abundantly to the wealth and prosperity of the two 
zillahs. 

" 3. Secondly, as a work of engineering, the committee are of opinion 
that the annicut may be built in any part of the river with every prospect 
of success ; the stability of such a work being simply a question of quan- 
tity and arrangement of material, though the facility of construction is 
dependent upon many variable circumstances. 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C— PB0P0SAL8 AND SANCTION. 31 

" 4. The only base for the foundation that can be obtained in any part of 
the river, is Band, upon which also the Coleroon and Godavery annicuts are 
built ; and the only question, whatever site may be selected, is how this 
base may be effectually guarded from lateral disturbances, since it is immov- 
able, or nearly so, by vertical pressure. The committee have no doubt that 
the object is attainable, even in the most unpromising sites, by the skilful 
disposition of the material, of which there is an inexhaustible supply in the 
igneous rocks of the vicinity. 

The return* to be expected. 

" 5. These, in their full extent, depend of course upon the aotual command 
of the annicut, a point to be hereafter discussed ; but the committee propose 
in the first place to exhibit those profits which may be reasonably expected 
from an annicut within the limits of any sites or heights that have been or 
are likely to be suggested. 

"6. In the statements already laid before Government, the committee 
observe that those of Masulipatam are deficient in specification of the sources 
of more immediate profit, and that those of Guntoor include lands which are 
on too high a level for irrigation, probably, within a considerable period. 
In both there is a want of discrimination between the existing wet and dry 
cultivation ; at least with reference to the expected effect of the annicut 
thereupon. 

" 7. The committee have, therefore, after careful enquiry, prepared the 
new returns which are appended to this report, and 
upon which they beg leave to offer the following 
remarks : — 
" 8. In Masulipatam, the highest revenue derived from the Boodemair 
and Pulleiroo in one year amounted, for both chan- 
nels, to Rupees 68,183, when prices were somewhat 
above the average. The revenue will not, for the 
future, depend upon prices ; but money rents are 
expected to the full amount of the best years when 
the channels are permanently supplied. The increase 
is therefore estimated at the amount of difference 
between the highest and average returns, that is, at 
37,144. 

" 9. The foregoing increase is calculated from the greatest extent of land 
under the channels hitherto cultivated, namely, 6,917 acres, and is therefore 
an increase from richer produce only : there are besides 11,636 acres in the 
Ayacut, of which three-fourths or 8,661 are expected to be immediately 
cultivated, and to yield Rs. 43,255. 

" 10. There are also 20,991 acres of wet land at present uncultivated in 
other parts of the district, favourably situated with reference to the annicut j 



Appendices A and 
B. 


"8. In 1 


kfasulipa 


Appendix A. 

RS. 

Boodemair ... 28,915 
Pulleiroo ... 39,268 




68,183 


Boodemair .. 
Pulleiroo 


. 13,129 
. 24,015 




37,144 



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32 &I8TNA DELTA ENGINEERING* HISTORY. 

and from these an increase of Us. 34,985 is expected in the first year after 
the construction of the annicut, 69,970 in the second, and 1,04,965 in the 
third and following years. 

"11. An increase of Bs. 4,708 is calculated from difference of assessment 
on the present wet cultivation. 

"12. On 33, 00(f acres of dry, 16,000 of which will probably be converted 
into wet cultivation, Es. 12,000 are expected in the first, 24,000 in the 
second, 36,000 in the third, and 48,000 in the fourth and following years, 
after water has been supplied by the annicut. 

" 13. In a zufted estate, which will shortly become the property of 
Government, the increase is estimated at Es. 9,690 in the first year, 19,380 
in the second, 29,070 in the third, and 29,820 in the fourth and following 
years. 

"14. The foregoing estimate has been purposely made at a low amount ; 
but if the expected increase on dry land be deducted, on account of the 
possible difficulties of conversion at an early period, the profit in the first 
year will still be about 1,20,000 rupees, provided that proper means for 
distributing the water be employed. 

"15. Ountoor. — In this district, the present irrigated lands lie in the 
Bopetlah, Bepully and Ponnoor talooks, and amount, 
as it will appear by the annexed memorandum, to 
36,117 acres, the average revenue upon whioh (a part only of course being 
cultivated), for ten years, amounted to Es. 62,298, and the highest to 
Rs. 1,43,802 ; the difference, less the profit obtained from the Toonga- 
buddra and Vellatoor channels, namely, Rs. 16,544, being expected as an 
immediate increase from the construction of the annicut. The revenue 
Difference ... 80,874 havmg hitherto been collected by shares, the extent 
Deduct ... 16,544 of land cultivated in the best year is not known, but 
Increase ... 64,330 wa8 » ** ™ certain, considerably within the Ayacut; 
prices being high and the revenue large, proportion- 
ately to the cultivation. As it is expected that, by means of the arrange- 
ments for the field assessment just concluded, a fixed rate of Rs. 6 the acre 
will be obtained, the probable yield of revenue from the Ayacut will be 
36,117 x 6 = 216,702, which, compared with the average return, gives an 
increase of Rs. 1,53,774 less 16,544, or 1,37,230 instead of 64,330. 

"16. In the Repully talook, there are tracts of waste land favourably 
situated for irrigation, from which Rs. 77,860 are expected, as an early, if 
not immediate increase ; and in the Tenally and Ponnoor talooks a large 
area now cultivated with red paddy will, it is believed on very good grounds, 
be quickly converted into wet land, and yield an increase of Rupees 
1,86,528. 

"17. The four talooks above mentioned are very favourably placed 
to receive water from the annicut ; and the committee have no reason to 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PKOPOSALS AND SANCTION. 33 

doubt that the expected increase therein will be quickly realized. It 
amounts altogether to Rs. 3,28,718, if the best yield only of the present wet 
lands be taken as the standard, or to Rs. 4,01,618, if the more probable 
return at the rate of the field assessment be admitted. 

"18. In the Pruttepaud talook, a further immediate inorease of Rupees 
62,569 is expected ; but regarding this the committee, considering the 
relative level of the lands, cannot record a decided opinion with the same 
confidence. 

" 19. The superiority of the profits expected from Guntoor to those of 
Masulipatam, is to be accounted for by the fact, that in the latter district 
no account has been taken of the Jary estates, which are in amount of 
acres as 244 to 118 of the lands in the possession of Government, and as 
244 to 131 of the Government and zufted lands together, excluding from 
both reckonings the whole of the enams. 

"20. Upon the arrangements to be made with the Zemindars, and with 
the Enamdars on the Government estates, the committee will offer some 
suggestions towards the close of their report. They now, having shown, as 
they trust, the more immediate profitable character of the project, observe 
that but a small portion of the returns that may most reasonably be 
expected from the annicut, as already proposed, has been exhibited. 

"21. It has been the desire of the committee to show clearly the immediate 
advantages, because those which are more distant, though not less certain, 
cannot be estimated with the same aoouracy, being in fact muoh dependent 
upon the increased resources which will be created by the annicut itself. At 
another part of the report the committee will treat of these later returns, 
with reference to the actual site and height of the work as proposed by them, 
and now to be discussed. 

Site. 

" 22. The more important points considered by the committee, under this 
head, are — 

Command. 

Nearness of materials. 

Safety and facility of construction, and expense of the work and its 
dependent channels. 

" 23. With regard to command, the committee are of opinion that that of 
the annicut, as already projected at Baizwarah, though sufficient for all the 
land included in the foregoing revenue statements, and probably far more, 
would not include the whole tract delineated on the map, and that to render 
it effective to the desired extent which it certainly ought to be, an 
additional height of four feet at the same site is requisite, to be diminished 
about seven inches for every mile higher up. 

E 



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34 BJSTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

"24. In proximity of material the site of Baizwarah has a very decided 
advantage oyer every other ; the hills on both sides, composed of rock 
excellent for the required purpose, being washed by the river even at its 
summer level. Between this site and Joopoody, eleven or twelve miles 
higher, there are no hills Dearer to the river than one mile ; and at the latter 
place, though there are rocky heights very near to the left bank, the hills on 
the right bank are at far too great a distance for the supply of material for 
the anniout. 

"25. Loose stone will be greatly in excess compared with masonry in the 
proponed work, and lime-stone is therefore of secondary importance. It is 
found in the river bed in the form of kunkur * in different places at Wodais- 
waram, two or three miles below Seetanagrum, which is opposite Baizwarah ; 
and at Madaveram, about nine miles from Ibrampatam. It is doubtful 
whether sufficient quantities for the annicut could be collected from the river 
and at Wodaiswaram ; and the committee have therefore allowed a prioe 
equal to the cost of lime* stone brought from Madaveram. With respect to 
this quarry, the site of Baizwarah has no advantage ; but the cost of 
transporting the lime-stone to the river bank would be much in excess of 
every other charge, and would be the same for every site. 

" 26. With regard to safety of construction, no doubts are entertained of 
any site, but that of Baizwarah, to which therefore the remarks of the 
oommittee will be confined. They have already stated that a command of 
four feet, in addition to that of the annicut as proposed by Captain Lake, is 
necessary ; that is, a work of 16 feet in height above the level of summer 
water must in their opinion be erected, if the site of Baizwarah be selected. 
" 27. It was remarked by Major Beatson in 1792 that the river had 
apparently * forced its way ' between the Baizwarah and Seetanagrum hills ; 
and as this opinion stands recorded in Captain Lake's report, and might 
excite alarm as to the practicability of a safe construction at a spot where 
solid rock had yielded to the current, it may be as well for the committee 
to state that such an opinion is not in the least supported by the obvious 
physical facts. In the first place there is no ' chain ' of hills lying across 
the path of the river, bu on both sides, at no great distanoe, there are 
considerable gaps, through which the Boodemair and Toongabuddra 
channels flow, and either of which must have inevitably formed the bed of 
the Kistnah, ages before the river could work its way through the rock ; 
and hence it is absolutely certain, that the passage between B izwarah and 
Seetanagrum is as natural a one as either of the other two. Secondly, the 
same conclusion may be proved with nearly equal certainty from the fact 
that, below the rocks of which the hills are composed, nothing but rock is 
ever form 1 in the earth, whereas at Baizwarah sand alone can be reached at 

* Nodular lime-stone. 



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KI8TNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 36 

any fathomable depth ; and on the hypothesis of the river having i forced 
its way,' it mnst therefore be further supposed that it ha.? cut away 
the rocks to an indefinite depth below its own bed ; which, even allowing 
for the rise of the bed with the gradual formation of the Delta, appears 
impossible. 

" 28. The passage of the river is certainly much contracted at Baizwarah, 
and its velocity thereby augmented, from three miles, which it is in the 
broadest part above, to five miles the hour in the high freshes. But the 
latter velocity is by no means high, per **, bein 6 not more (probably less) 
than that of the Coleroon in Tanjoie ; and consequently the mean depth of 
the bed is scarcely at all affected thereby, and the deep pools are caused 
entirely by the relative positions of the hills. The current first sweeping 
round that of Baizwarah, and then driven upon that of Seetanagrum, forms 
a deep bed, constant at the former, but variable at the latter hiil ; yet this 
bed, at the site selected by Captain Lake for the annicut, is little deeper than 
the committee have found it to be in six other sections of the river recently 
taken; and hence they have no reason to suppose that, were the bed 
brought to a uniform level by an annicut designed on just principles, any 
dangerous hollows would be formed below the work. 

" 29. The stability of an anniout sixteen feet high, in this situation, will of 
course require peculiar caution in the construction, but, this being granted, 
may be reckoned upon with as much certainty as the nature of the case 
admits ; but it remains for the committee to state what would be the effect 
of such a work in raising the level of the river water in the high freshes, 
which alone are of importance in the question. The afflux or rise by means 
of the work, they have calculated, by established data, would be only about 
10 inches, if the natural depth were 35 feet above the summer level, the 
ordinary highest rise. In the extraordinary floods, which rarely occur, and 
rise three feet higher, the afflux would be somewhat less ; and it is evident) 
therefore, that a weak embankment, carried along each margin of the river, 
would render any inundation by means of the annicut impossible, since no 
natural rise of the water within 35 feet overtops the present banks. 

" 30. The annicut will indeed probably have the effect of casting the 
current obliquely on different points of the banks above, and the more so in 
proportion to its height ; but such points will be easily defended, and the 
current rectified by groins, for which there will always be an abundant 
supply of material. 

" 31. The committee have thus, they believe, shown that there would be 
no danger, either to the work or the country, from an annicut 16 feet high 
at Baizwarah. 

" 32. The facility of construction at any site (other things being equal), 
is great in inverse proportion to the length of the work. At Baizwarah; the 



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36 XISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

breadth is about one-half of that of any other favourable site ; and though 
the difficulties are on the other hand increased by the presence of an equal 
body of water in a contracted passage, the committee are of opinion upon 
the whole that, considering the proximity of the quarries, Baizwarah would 
be found as convenient a site in this respect as any other. 

" 33. The last point for report, under this head, is the expense of the work 
and dependent channels at different sites. 

" 34. Between Baizwarah and Joopoody the committee have before stated 
that there is no favourable site with regard to the 
nearness of material, the expense of transporting 
which from any distance would add greatly to the estimate. Joopoody may 
therefore be taken as alone suitable for comparison with Baizwarah. Its 
advantages are simply that the requisite command would be obtained there 
by a work far less massive, and requiring less constructive skill. On the 
other hand, its length would be double, and material could be deposited 
from the left bank only ; but the most serious disadvantage of this site is the 
increased length necessary for the irrigating channels. In point of expense, 
it is probable that this additional length, merely for the immediate irrigation 
required, would nearly, or even entirely, absorb the difference of cost in the 
two annicuts ; and under this view the question would be narrowed to the 
relative difficulties of the construction, and chances of stability. But even- 
tually the channels must be greatly enlarged, and would cost many lacs of 
Rupees before they could supply the whole of the culturable land in both 
districts ; and what is of the most immediate importance, the lauds from 
which the earliest increase of revenue is expected (the ryots being fully 
prepared to extend their cultivation), are the most distant from the sources 
of supply, which would consequently, in proportion to the distance, be 
most precarious where most required. The known difficulty of conveying 
water by high level channels to great distances in this country, when inter- 
mediate demands are to be satisfied, makes it, in the opinion of the com* 
mittee, highly important that the immediate productiveness of the project 
should not be endangered by arrangements for which it appears to them 
there is no actual necessity. 

" 35. They have therefore determined to recommend, in conjunction with 
Captain Lake and Major Cotton, the site of Baizwarah, as the most eligible 
under all the circumstances. 

11 36. That site, being under the line of the northern road, is farther 
highly convenient for the purposes of communication, whether by the 
annicut, or by a bridge over the work ; and it is also a decided advantage, 
that the management of the annicut, when constructed, should be so much 
nearer to the control of the Collectors and Civil Engineer than it would be 
at Joopoody. 



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KISTNA AKICUT, &C. — PKOPOSAlS AND SANCTION. 37 

Plan of the work. 

" 37. In this the committee have followed generally the design of Captain 
Lake, but have proposed certain modifications, with reference to the varying 
section of the river. If the depth were even tolerably uniform, it appears 
to them that one form of section would suffice for the entire work ; but 
under the actual circumstances it is necessary in one part to fill up the hol- 
lows with a mass of loose stone, and in another to build the work upon wells 
sunk, as far as possible below the summer level. This is the only arrange- 
ment that, in the opinion of the committee, will effectually overcome the 
difficulties arising from the constant passage of the water, which cannot be 
drained off without much greater difficulties. 

"38. If every proper preparation were made, the committee would expect 
that the annicut might be built in the first year to the height (above the 
summer water) of five feet throughout, and the under sluices to a height 
sufficient to serve, in the second year, as drains, during the progress of the 
rest of the construction. 

" 39. The full height of the annicut would not be attained till the third 
year, nor perhaps even then, should circumstances render it desirable to 
maintain a lower height for any period ; but such arrangements cannot be 
predetermined, and must be left to the judgment of the executive officer. 

" 40. In altering the plan, the committee have been guided by the highly 
important experience obtained in the construction of the Godavery annicut ; 
an advantage which, it must be remembered, was not enjoyed by Captain 
Lake, who drew up his project before that work was commenced. 

Estimate. 

"41. The same remark applies to the estimate, the rates of which the 
committee have, considering the repeated injunctions of Government, felt it 
incumbent upon them to increase considerably, besides providing a large 
sum for the plant, which, with the particulars of the rates, is duly specified 
in the appendix to the estimate. 

"42. The committee have endeavoured to prepare a liberal estimate, with- 
out indulging in mere conjettures ; but they feel the responsibility of this 
part of their duty to be very great ; and while they cannot undertake to 
certify the correctness of calculations, so liable to be disturbed by contingen- 
cies, they trust that they will be considered to have done all in their power 
to prevent disappointment in the cost of the work. 

"43. The committee believe that no inconsiderable portion of the plant 
may be provided from that of the Godavery annicut ; but they are unable to 
estimate this portion, and therefore make no deduction on its account. The 
cost of cut-stone may also probably be diminished by bringing it from the 
Condapilly fort, where a large quantity is ready for use ; but here again, the 



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38 E18TNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTOBt. 

expense of transport being doubtful, they have thought it proper to fix the 
rates sufficient to prepare the material on the spot. 

" 44. The committee consider it essential that the work should be placed 
under the charge of an officer on the allowances of a Civil Engineer, since 
the Civil Engineer of the division could n* t attend to it, having at the same 
time the duty of superintending the Godavery irrigation. They have also 
provided for the pay of two First, and two Second Assistant Civil Engineers, 
though it is not certain that so many extra officers will be required. 

" 45. It is ei great importance that contempoiateously with the pre- 
paration for the annicut, and its actual construction, surveyor should be 
employed in laying out the channels required for the dibtribution of water 
from the main ducts, the Bo< demair and Toon^ abuddra. 

"46. It is further the decided opinion of the committee that, if the work 
is sanctioned, a legislative enactment should be « btained, to enable the local 
authorities to obtain possession of property indispensably necessary for the 
prosecution of the work, and for the distribution of the water. The neces- 
sity of such a measure is particularly great at Baizwarah, where the annicut 
will touch the village, and where private property must be acquired to obtain 
room for working. 

"47. The committee have now to recommend that if the work is sanctioned 
the Board of Bevenue may at once be authorized to make known to the 
Enamdars on the Government estates in both districts the terms on which 
they may be supplied with water. 

"48. The Zemindars of the Jary estates should, in the opinion of the 
committee, be invited to declare whether they will accept of the proposed 
irrigation upon certain terms, and should be cautioned that, in the event 
of a refusal, they will not be allowed the benefit at any future period. 

"49. It should be observed that, in the calculations of increased revenue 
in Masulipatam, the Deevy Purgunnah, now under the management of the 
Court of Wards, has not been taken into account. 

" 50. In the estimated returns the committee have limited their observa- 
tions to those immediately or early expected from the known resources of 
the districts, and the disposition of the ryots. They will now briefly add 

* ^ . , ^ , «^ «™ that the annicut, as proposed by them, will command in 

• Govt, lands. 130,000 , ,- -„. • , ^ 
Zemindary. 340,000 Guntoor about half a million of acres, and the same 

Enams ... 60,000 in Masulipatam* (of Government and other lands) 

530 000 exc l UB * ve °* Deevy, and that the supply of water for 

this tract will be most abundant during the season of 

cultivation of paddy, and very considerable even iu the lowest state of the 

river ; so that there is every reason to believe that the whole will eventually 

be cultivated. 

"51. The level of the annicut has not been proposed without anxious 

consideration, and the committee have rather stated its maximum height) 

than fixed it at a definite point for the irrigation required. It will readily be 



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KIBTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 89 

understood that the latter is a question of no ordinary difficulty, in a locality 
where nearly all the land is dry, or if wet has been hitherto, with small 
exceptions, supplied from the local rains. In Tanjore the height of the 
Upper Annicut was determined simply with reference to a mark on the 
Grand Annicut, at which it was known that the river furnished a full supply 
for all the irrigated lands ; but in the case before the committee no standards 
of the kind exist, and a large system of levels, with minute calculations of 
the fall of water in the channels, would be necessary to enable them to pre- 
determine the height of the annicut with any thing like perfect accuracy. 
They can, however, without hesitation declare, that should the maximum 
height be eventually adopted, there would be at least six feet water at the 
heads of the channels for 130 days in the year, which is considerably more 
than the period required to perfect a crop of paddy, and that there would 
almost always be an abundant supply for a large tract of sugar-cane, should 
that plan he cultivated. 

" 52. For, having measured the quantity of water now passing down the 
river, and from that estimated the quantity in the driest season, they find 
that there would be even then sufficient for about 100,000 acres of sugarcane. 

"53. In conclusion, the committee desire to record their conviction of the 
very great importance of the proposed work, and of its early sanction. That 
it would, in all human probability, aver the possibility of a destructive 
famine in this region, seems an argument of the greatest possible weight, 
independent of profitable expectations, which are themselves most promising. 
Again, its early sanction is important to meet the expectations of the ryots, 
and the contingency of drought, an) to hapten the profitable returns ; in 
addition to which, the sooner the valuable experience acquired at the Goda- 
very is brought to bear upon 'he Kistnah project, the more effective it will be. 

" 54. The loss of revenue by the famine of 1832-33 is estimated at least at 
one crore, the loss of property at a far greater amount, of life at 200 or 
800,000, and of cattle at 200,000 'at the lowest) in Guntoor alone, besides 
the ruin of 70,000 houses. These facts will, the committee believe, bespeak 
more effectively than the most laboured arguments, the favourable attention 
of the Honorable Court of Directors, to the project now submitted, as one of 
indispensable and urgent necessity. The famine of the Northern Oircars n 
1883, and that of the North- West Provinces of India at a later period, prove 
with irresistible force that irrigation in this country is properly a question, 
not of profit, but of existence. 

"The amount of the revised estimate is Rupees 7,49,165-4-2. 



Masulipatam District, - 
Jbrampata 
January 26th, 



District, "| 
itam, > 

\ 1849. J 



(Signed) 


E. Buokli. 


( „ ) 


J. H. Bill. 


( » ) 


Ohablbs A. Orb. 


( .. ) 


H. Stokbb. 


( „ ) 


H. Forbis." 



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40 



KJSTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 



" Appendix A. 

(COMMITTEI'S KbPORT.) 

Statement of expected {mease of Revenue in Maiulipatam, 





1 Expected increase. 


Lands. 


Present 
Revenue. 


1st year. 


2nd year. 


3rd year. 


4th year. 


| ! 
RS. 


! 
RS. 1 RS. 


RS. | RS. 


Boodemair, dug in Fusly 1249, when 




1 


; 


the revenue was 


28,915 










In the seven years since the average 












has been 

Difference 

• 


15,786 


13,129 


13,129 


13,129 


13,129 


... 


Poolairoo, highest revenue in Fusly 












1256 


39,268 










Average of eight years since it was 








1 


dug, or Fusly 1248, to 1255 

Difference 


15,253 


24,015 


24,015 






* 


24,015 i 24,015 


Under the two channels are 18,452 








1 


acres, of which only 6,917 acres 










were cultivated in Fusly 1256. 








i 


Remain 11,535 acres, three quarters 










of which or 8,651 acres will be culti- 










vated at five Rupees the acre 


... 


43,255 


48,255 


43,255 i 43,255 


Total wet land of the Govern- 








| 


ment lands, acres 55,264 










Cultivated, Fusly 1256 22,738 








i 


Remain ...32,526 








1 


Deduct accounted for under the 












channels 11,535 












20,991 








i 


Which will be cultivated at §rd per 












annum or 


... 


34,985 


69,970 


104,955 


104,955 


Present wet cultivation acres 22,738 












assessed in Fusly 1256 at Rupees 












4-12-8 per acre, difference between 












which and five Rs. the proposed rate 












will be 


... 


4,708 


4,708 


4,708 


4,708 


Dry land, acres 33,300, of which 












one-half will be converted 












into wet land, say 16,000 










acres, at five Rupees the acre. 80,000 












Deduot present dry sist at two 












Rupees 32,000 












48,000 



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fclSTNA ANICTJT, &C. — PBOP08AL8 AKD SANCTION. 



41 



Appendix A— conL 
Statement of expected increase of Revenue in Maiulipatam—cont 



Lands. 


Present 
Revenue. 


Expected increase. 


1st year. 


2nd year. 


3rd year. 


4th year. 


At 25 per cent, per annum 

Z of ted estate which will be Govern- 
ment property in February — 

ACS* 

Total Sarey land 12,868 

Wetland 6,018 


RS. 


RS. 

12,000 

8,940 
750 


RS. 

24,000 

17,880 
1,600 


RS. 

36,000 

26,820 
2,250 


RS. 

48,000 

26,820 
3,000 


Eemain dry ... 6,850 
Of which were cultivated in 

Fusly 1256 ( Wefc - 654 
J 1846-47 I Dry ... 1,999 

The remaining wet land or acres 5,864 
would be cultivated at &rd per 
annum or 1,788 acres and at five 
Rupees the acre would give 

And half the dry land at 25 per cent. 
per annum would be cultivated wet, 
and the difference of three Rupees 
the aore would give 

Rupees .. 




1,41,782 


1,98,457 


2,55,132 


2,67,882 



There are 58,000 acres of enam land in Masulipatam, and the committee 
would recommend that if the annicut is sanctioned the Board of Eevenue 
should at once make known the terms on which Enamdars are to be given 
water from the ohannels. ,, 



Signed) 

,, ) 

.. ) 

., ) 

., ) 



E. BUCKLB< 

J. H. Beix* 
C. A. Orb. 
H. Stokes. 
H. Forbes. 



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42 *ISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

"Appbotix B. 

(Committbb's Rbfort.) 

Statement of expected inereaee of Revenue in Guntoor. 

Comparison of 10 years' average sist with that of the best year in the 
Talooksof — 



— 


Average 

from Fusly 

1246 to 

1257. 


Best year's 
Revenue. 


Ayacut acres 

of the whole 

cultivable 

land. 


Baputlah 
Reypully 
Ponnoor 

Deduct average 
revenue 


sist from best year's 
••• ••• ••• <*• 

Difference Rs. ... 


18. 

27,846 
16,829 
18,253 


as. 

66,378 
31,663 
45,761 


9,162 
11,800 
15,155 


62,928 


1,43,802 
62,928 


36,117 


... 


80,874 


... 



But if the whole Ayacut were cultivated and 

assessed at six Rupees it would give . . . . Rs. 2,16,702 
From which deduct average sist as above . , . . „ 62,928 



Increase by cultivation of whole Ayacut 



1,53,774 



In this the existing advantages of the Toongabuddra and Yellatore 
channels are not taken into account, which may be stated thus : 



Average before Cham 


nele were opened. 







Toonga- 
buddra. 


Vellatore. 


Total. 


Average before famine 

Average after famine and before the 
channel wa 8 opened 

Rs. ... 

Mean of two averages ... 


RS. 

29,857 
13,750 


RS. 

4,802 


RS. 


43,607 




21,804 


26,606 



Average eince tlie Channele were opened. 



Rupees ... 


Fusly. 
1254 to 1257 
average. 
36,656 


Fusly. 
1249 to 1257 
average. 
6,494 


43,150 


Difference . . . 


14,852 


1,692 


16,544 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 



It will leave 



43 



Total average increase from existing channels • • Rs. 16,544 

If this sum is deducted from the difference between 

average and best year's revenue . . . . . . ,, 80,874 

„ 16,544 



64,330 



But if it is deducted from the assessment of the whole 
Ayacut lands, minus the average revenue 



„ 1,53,774 
„ 16,644 



It will leave for expected increase above the present 

revenue with the help of the channels . . . . „ 1,37,230 

In forming these averages seasons of drought have 
been omitted, and if these are taken into account, 
it will make the advantage derivable from the 
annicut appear much greater. 

The assumed rate for irrigating land to be brought 
under cultivation is taken at Bupees six, whioh may 
be called the average of the present cultivation ; 
but a continual supply of water should raise it 
above this, by enabling the ryots to get two crops 
of paddy in the year. 

The low waste lands in Bepully are expected to yield 
byconversion ,, 77,860 

" Computed increase from the annicut irrigation of low lands now 
cultivated with red paddy. 



Talooks. 


1 

Villa- 
ges. 


Last year's full. 


Portion to be 
irrigated. 


taken of 

3 times 

present 

sist. 


Increase. 




Tenally 

Ponnoor 

Pruttipaud 

Total ... 


46 
09 
IS 


LAVD. 

ACUI. 

70,807 
48,076 
23,966 


BBVE- 
VTTB. 

1,10,869 

80,633 

01,200 


3 s k $ 


BS. 

02,329 
40,930 
31,274 


Bfl. 

1,06,967 

1,22,800 

93,813 


ss. 

1,04,608 
81,870 
62,009 


BS. 

jl,86,828 


118 


142,869 


2,42,702 


70,921 


1,24,038 


8,73,600 


2,49,087 



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44 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

Abstract of increase. 



From present wet lands the best yield being the standard. 
Do. do. the field assessment being the 

standard ... ... ... ... ... 

From Repully waste 

From Tenall j and Ponnoor red paddy lands 



64,330 



77,860 
1,86,628 



From Prnttipand red paddy land (doubtful) 



3,88,718 
62,559 



Total Rs. 



3,91,277 



RS. 



1,37,230 

77,860 

1,86,528 



4,01,618 
62,559 



4,64,177 



(Signed) 



) 



) 



E. BUOKLB. 

J. H. Bbll. 
C. A. Ore. 
H. Stokbs. 

H. FOBBBS. 



" SPECIFICATION of an Annicut and dependent works proposed to be erected 
across the Kistnah river at Baitwarah. 

"(1) The river at the proposed site is 3,860 feet across, on the crest 
of the anniout. 

"(2) Of this distance, the annicut will occupy 

"umvSsr^ 2,95 ° feet> the bridge abntmentB and &*** 5i ° feet » and 

the sluioes, including wing- walls, 360 feet. 

" (3) The foundation of the annicut will vary with the oharacter of the 
river section. Where the bed is deep, it will be filled up to the level of the 
summer water with rough stone, and where it is high, wells will be sunk in 
the front and rear of the work, as far as practicable, below the same level. 

" (4) Upon these foundations the body of the annicut will be raised 
alike throughout, namely, with a front wall nearly perpendicular, and a 
rear curved slope, both of rubble masonry ; the space between being filled 
with rough stone, and the crest covered in with rubble masonry, to be 
eventually, with the rear slope, capped with cut-stone. 

" (6) The height of the annicut above the summer level will be 16 feet, 
the breadth of the crest 12 feet, and that of the slope (horizontally) 48 feet. 

" (6) There will be an apron in rear of the annicut of 90 feet in breadth 
and 6 to 8 feet average depth. 

" (7) The annicut sluioes it is proposed to place, one at about 36 feet 

from each bank, with which and the head sluioes 

Am °f Ult B^shd - *" they wiU be connected h y wing-walls. The sluices are 



Bf. 86,845-15-0. 



to have each 15 vents, of 6 feet in breadth, and from 10 
to 16 in height. The floor is placed in the drawings at 
9 feet below the crest of the annicut, but in the construction it must be fixed 



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SECTIONS FOR THE KISTH 

AS PROPOSED BY THE COMMTTTE! 55 
SENT WITH THEIR Rff r 



se: 




SECT 




SECTION of ANIi 





Reg: No. 3882 
Copies 410 



Facsimile of drawing In Vol. IV of pro 



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A ANICUT AT BEZWADA. 

APPOINTED TO OCFNSIDER THE PROJECT. 
>ORT OF 26TH JANUARY 1849. 



TWtel 



ZTTION of ANICUT tn the OEEP part of the RIVER. 

*8 (2 

_ 24 . 




HON of ANICUT m the SHALLOW part of the RIVER 




*£%* 



OUT in the SHALLOW part of the RIVER showing a BRIDGE PIER. 




SECTION of AN ICUT/^NDER; SLUICE. 

T7 



-£3 




Photo-Print., Survey Office, Madras. 
1807 

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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 45 

according to circumstances. The sluices will have front and rear aprons of 
cut-stone, and a rear apron of rough stone of 150 feet in width, and 10 feet 
average depth. 

" (8) From above each set of sluices an inclined road will lead to the 
annicut, along which the communication will be carried with facility] for 
the greatest part of the year, until a bridge is built. 

" (9) The piers of a bridge of 49 arches, of 61 feet each, are proposed 
to be built to the level of the crest of the annicut : they will be each 10 feet 
thick, founded partly on rough stone, and partly on wells, and each abut- 
ment 15. The breadth of the bridge will be 24 feet, inclusive of parapets. 

. __ " (10) The two head sluices of the channels will 

Amount of Bsti- 
mate for 8 titaioes, t> e connected, as before observed, by wing- walls, with 

Bs. 84,566- 15-3. the annicut sluices on each bank. 

" (11) The head sluices will have each 16 vents, in height from 7 to 9 
feet, divided by 3 large and 12 small piers. There will be front and rear 
aprons of cut-stone, and a rear apron of rough stone as usual. The floor 
will be 4 feet below the crest of the annicut. 

Am t f S tl- " ( 12 ) Adjoining the head sluices, will be locks 

mate for 2 looks, 'or the passage of boats into the channels, having 
Bs. 83,886-18-0. chambers 60 feet long and 16 wide. 



Amount of BaU 
mate for looks, 



"(13) To enable boats to return into the river, 
a detached lock will be built at a convenient place in the 
B§7l8,687-1-10~ ™' Baizwarah channel bank. This work is of the usual 
description. 

U (H) All the sluices and locks will be built of rubble masonry and 
cut-stone, as shown on the plans ; the arches, parapets, &c, only being of 
brick in ohunam. 

" HT.B. — The excess of the estimate above that of Captain Lake is owing 
principally, 

First, to the increased length of the river section now proposed for the 
site of the anniout, amounting to 710 feet. 

Second, to the increase (four feet) given to the height of the annicut, 
and consequently to Its strength. 

Third, to the increase of the prices, from 50 to near 100 per cent. 

Fourth, to the increase of sundries, contingencies, and superintend- 
ence. 

Fifth, to the provision of a plant. 

" (15) It is farther to be remarked, that the estimate applies only to 

the same extent of works as that of Captain Lake, 

31 , aragrap w jj 0fle ron g] l e tatement of the " probable amount" of 

" Detail Irrigation works/' viz., six lacs, must be added 



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46 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 



to the estimate oNhe annicut; with the understanding 1 that it will be very 
gradually expended ; and the same may be said of the items for embank- 
ments, roads, &c., amounting to seven lacs more." 

(By Order of the Committee.) 

(Signed) J. H. Bbll, 

Brevet Captain of Engineer*. 



" ABSTRACT ESTIMATE for the eomtruetion for an Annicut and 
dependent work* for the KUtnah Riper at Bainwarah. 



tides" \ Description of work. 


Rate. 


Per 


Amount 




Total. 




Axicct. 


BS. A. P. 




B8. A. 


p. 


BS. A. 


p. 


219,529* 


Cubic yards of rough 
■tone. 


11 


Cubio 
yard. 


1,50,926 6 


8 






32,404* 


Cubic yards of rubble in 
ohunam. 


2 6 


Do. 


76,960 1 


6 






11,345 


Cubio yards of cut-stone 
in ohunam. 


5 


Do. 


56,725 









1,496 


Wells 


7 


Each. 


10,472 











Grouting 




... 


5,000 











Excavation 

Total ... 


... 




7,000 









... 




3,07,083 8 


2 




Anicut 'Under* or 
















' Scouring ' Sluice. 














8,744} 


Cubio yards of rabble in 
chunam. 


2 6 


Cubic 
yard. 


8,893 12 


6 






546 


Cubio yards of partially 
dressed rubble in 
ohunam. 


3 


Do. 


1,638 









121* 


Cubio yards of archirork 
in ohunam. 


3 


Do. 


365 4 









3381 


Cubic yards of briok in 
ohunam. 


2 8 


Da 


845 15 









1,096 


Cubio yards of cat-stone 
in chunam. 


5 


Do. 


5,480 









15 


Shutters 

Plastering and sundries. 

Total ... 

Total for another similar 


30 


Each. 


450 
500 















18,172 15 


6 














sluice . . . 


1 






18,172 15 


6 



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proposed KISTNA A 

DESIGN FOR HEAD 



Submitted by th« Conn 
2eti» J ■ 





0M1 




T- 



J" 



/••'■•" 


F:-l- ! 


.'. '•._••'. ' . . <0 


30- 




&' 1 


****•%» 


u. 


* * • » *►' 
: .V":" : 


a 



(From Draw 



Reg. No. 3883 
Copies 410 



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iA ANICUT AT BEZWADA. 

HEAD SLUICE * HEAD LOOK 



Ite» Datto BagfaMring Hbtay. 



sy tte Cqarttt— with tb«lr Report ot 



SECTION of HEAD SLUICE. 








yr'^rni^ 






Dr aw<nR In VoL IV of Profl. papers. Madras Engineers.) 



Photo-Print.. Survey Office, Madras. 
1897. 



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fclSTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 4fr 

1 Abstract Estimate far the construction for an Anntcut, Sfc— cont. 



titles' Description of work. 


Bate. 


Per 


Amount. 


Total. 




Head Sluice. 


B8. A. P. 




RS. A. p. 


R8. A. P. 


2,4801 


Cubic yards of rubble in 
ohunam. 


2 6 


Cubic 
yard. 


5,891 12 6 




270 


Cubio yards of archwork 
in ohnnam. 


3 


Do. 


810 




154} 


Cubic yards of brick in 
ohunam. 


2 8 


Do. 


386 16 1 




850| 


Cubic yards of cut-stone 
in ohunam. 


5 


Do. 


4,262 8 




277* 


Cubic yards of cut-stone 
in chunam. 


7 


Do. 


1,942 8 




91 


Wells 


9 


Each. 


819 




142 


Do 


7 


Do. 


994 




900 


Cubic yards of rough 
stone apron. 


11 


Cubio 
yard. 


618 12 




3,000 


Cubio yards of excavating 

foundation. 
Centering to large 

arches. 


10 


Do. 


187 8 
400 




16 


Shatters 

Plastering and sundries. 


30 


Each. 


480 
500 


17,282 16 7 




Total for another head 










sluice . . . 
Lock adjoining Head 


... 






17,282 15 7 










Sluice. 










2,826 


Cubic yards of rubble in 
chunam. 


2 6 


Cubic 
yard. 


6,711 12 




23* 


Cobio yards of archwork 


3 


70 






in chunam. 










39 


Cubic yards of brick in 
chunam. 


2 8 


Do. 


97 8 




149| 


Cubic yards of cut-ston? 
in chunam. 


5 


Do. 


748 2 




114 


Wells, 4 feet in diameter. 


7 


Each. 


798 




2 


Pairs of gates with 
levers. 


... 


... 


3,000 




3,000 


Cubio yards, excavating 
foundation. 


10 


Cubio 
yard. 


187 8 






Plastering and sundries. 


... 




300 


11,912 14 




Total for another lock. 


... 






11,912 14 




Detached Lock. 










8,408} 


Cubio yards of rubble in 
chunam. 


2 6 


Cubic 
yard. 


8,09*12 6 




23| 


Cubio yards of archwork 
in chunam. 


3 


Do. 


70 




83 


Cubic yards of brick in 
chnnam. 


2 8 


Do. 


207 8 




130| 


Cubic yards of cut-stone 
in chunam. 


5 


Do. 


653 5 4 




109 


Wells, 4 feet in diameter. 


7 


Each. 


763 




2 . 


Pairs of gates 






3,500 




15,000 


Cubio yards, excavation. 
Plastering and sundries. 


1 


C.yd. 


937 8 
400 






Total ... 


... 




14,627 1 10 



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48 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

" Abstract Estimate far th$ construction for an Annieut, Sfc. — cont. 



Quan- 
tities. 



Description of work. 



Rate. Per Amount. 



Total. 



516,000 



40,000 



Opening Head op 
Baizwarah Channel. 

Cubic yards of earth- 
work. 

Total ... 



Opening Hiad of 

TOONGABUDDBA CHANNEL. 

Cubic yards, sluice and 

lock. 
Widening and deepening 

present channel. 

Rough stone between 
head and anient sluice 
and in other situations. 

Temporary dams and 
sundries. 

Embanking rivers 

Plant 

Opening quarry 

Total ... 



Civil Engineer's pay and 
tentage for three years. 

First Assistant Civil En- 
gineer for three years. . . 

Second Assistant Civil 
Engineer for three 
years. 

Subordinate superintend- 
ence. 

Contingencies 

Total ... 
Total Company's Rupees. 



10 'Cubic 
| yard. 



10 Cubic 
yard. 



RS. A. p. 



32,250 



4,48,698 4 2 



2,500 

5,000 

5,000 

30,000 

1,000 

1,11,407 

7,000 



RS. A. P. 



32,250 



821 12 5 Month 
291 5 4 



Do. 



191 5 4 I Do. 

I 
GOO 0' Do. 



29,584 

•10,488 

*6,888 

2l,G00 

70,000 



1,61,907 



1,38,560 



7,40,165 4 2 



(By Order of the Committee.) 



Madras, •» 

30*A April 1849. J 



(Signed) J. H. BBLt, 

Brevet Captain of Engineers, 



* Note. — These two amounts are miscalculations for double the amounts, vie., Rs* 
20,976 and Rs. 13,770, respectively ; this was pointed out in the Board's lette/, No. 337, 
dated 25th May 1852, and in sanctioning the increase Government said (in its Minutes 
of Consultation, dated 11th June 1852), that the extra amount "added to the original 
estimate will increase it to Rs. 7,66,541-4-2, a sum which by proper management, it is 
hoped, will suffice for the due execution of the work."— G.T.W. 



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XISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION, 49 

The Governor, Sir Henry Pottinger, wrote a minnte supporting the 
project, and in July 1849 it was sent on to the Government of India 
with " Proceedings " No. 680, dated 20th July 1849. 

The Government of India lost no time in sending the matter to the 

" Court of Directors." That body, however, did 

Despatch sanctioning no t hurry itself in dealing with the subject, and 

not till January 1851 was the following despatch 

sent : — 

Despatch No. 1 of 1851, dated 8th January 1851. 

Our Governor in Council at Fort St. George. 

" The letters and paragraphs referred to in the margin relate to a plan 

for the construction of an anicut 
Letter, dated 20th November (No. 88), across the river Kistnah for the 

1848, paras. 15 and 16. purpose of irrigating portions of the 

Letter, dated 20th July (No. 87), 1849. tl * , * ?. *\ w ... 

Letter from the Government of India, <*™toor <">d Masulipatam Districts 
dated 18th Auguet (No. 10), 1849. whioh you have submitted for our 

sanction. 
"2. This project has been at various times under the consideration of 
Government since the year 1792, and although circumstances have hitherto 
prevented its being carried into effect, its feasibility and the great advan- 
tages which it would confer on the before-mentioned districts seem never 
to have been doubted. One of the principal considerations which deterred 
the Government from carrying the plan into execution was probably that 
both Guntoor and Masulipatam had been permanently settled, and there 
would have been difficulty in arranging with the zemindars for the reim- 
bursement of the necessarily large outlay. That obstacle is, however, now 
removed, the whole of Guntoor and a considerable part of Masulipatam 
having reverted to the possession of Government. 

" 3. The present scheme is founded on a report by Captain Lake, the 
Civil Engineer of the Division, dated the 3rd July 1847. It had been 
examined and approved by Major A. Cotton, whose experience in suoh 
works in Tanjore is very extensive, and who was at the time engaged in 
superintending the construction of the anicut across the Godavery river. 

"4. The plans and estimates were submitted to your Government by the 
Board of Bevenue in the Department of Public Works with a strong expres- 
sion of opinion in favour of the undertaking. Considering, however, that so 
important a work should not be commenced without the most rigid scrutiny, 
you appointed Major A. Cotton, Captain Buckle, Captain Bell and the Col- 
lectors of Masulipatam and Guntoor, a committee for that purpose, direoting 
them to assemble at the site of the proposed anicut, and there to examine 
carefully the plans and estimates, both of expenditure and return, and report 

a 



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50 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

fully their opinion oi them, oi the feasibility of the project generally, and of 
the eligibility of the proposed site or the advantages over it of any other 
they might consider preferable. 

"6. The report of the committee is dated the 26th January 1849 and 
was submitted to you on the 30th April 1849. After haying made a most 
careful examination into the whole question, the committee close their 
report with the following paragraphs : 

[Here are quoted paragraphs 53 and 54 of the Committee's Report 
already printed ; see page 39.] 

"6. The question has again been carefully considered by your Government, 
and you have satisfied yourselves that, adding to the estimate of 7£ lakhs 
given by the committee for the anient alone, the sum of 8 lakhs as the 
probable amount required for ' Detail irrigation works and embankments, ' 
the total cost of the work when complete will not exceed 15£ lakhs. The 
committee estimate ' the advantages of the work from the two districts ' 
(by which terms, however, they mean the increase of revenue to be gained 
by the Government, alone, without including the benefits to be derived by 
the ryots) when the anicut and auxiliary works shall have been brought 
into full operation, at Be. 7,32,059 per annum, or 48 per oent. on the 
capital expended according to the above estimate. Without going the full 
length of the committee's expectations, you state that you feel assured 
that ( a permanent increase of revenue will be gained from extended and 
improved cultivation which will not be short .of 30 per oent. at the least.' 

" 7. ' The projected work,' you observe, * thus promises on the lowest 
estimate to be a highly profitable one by oreating additional revenue, and 
it will be still more so probably, by saving the public finances, and the 
inhabitants, from a recurrence of the enormous losses caused by the dearths 
which have afflicted the districts of Masulipatam and Guntoor.' 

" 8. You accordingly resolved to transmit all the papers to the Govern- 
ment of India with your earnest recommendation in favour of the project. 
That authority, in addressing us on the subject, state that the contemplated 
work has their entire approval, and submit their strong recommendation 
that the plan proposed by the committee should meet with our favourable 
consideration. 

" 9. The project has thus been submitted to the examination of those 
whose scientific acquirements, general experience, and local knowledge 
render them the most competent to form an opinion as to its merits, and has 
reoeived the strongest recommendation from those authorities under whose 
consideration it has passed. We have carefully examined the papers sub- 
mitted to us, and have satisfied ourselves that every possible means have 
been adopted to obtain the fullest assuranoe of the practicability of the 
proposed undertaking, and that the greatest care has been taken to prevent 
future disappointment in respect to the estimates both of cost and returns. 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 5l 

Under these circumstances, and concurring fully in* [the observation of Sir 
Henry Pottinger, that, independently of the undoubtedjbenefit which must, 
in due time, accrue to the State by a great increase of revenue, it is 
' a positive duty which the British Government owes to the inhabitants of 
the districts which the anient is meant to fertilize, to adopt a measure whioh, 
under God's blessing, will for ever avert the horrors of famine under whioh 
they have before so deplorably suffered," we readily give our cordial sanction 
to the undertaking, and trust that matters will be so arraoged that the 
establishment employed on the Godavery Anient may not be broken up and 
dispersed, but may be made fully available for the works on the Eistnah. 

"We are, 
Your loving friends, 



( Signed) 


John Shbphbbd. 


V )> 


) 


W. W. Hogg. 


\ »> 


) 


H. WlGRAM. 


V 5) 


) 


M. T. Smith. 


\ n 


) 


F. L. LusniNGTON. 


\ >» 


) 


W. B/Baylby. 


V >> 


) 


W. J. Mblvtllh. 


\ >> 


) 


E. Macnaghtbn. 


\ )9 


) 


E. Mangles. 


V M 


) 


J. Oaxjlfibij). 


V >' 


) 


J. Oliphant. 


v n 


) 


J. MaSTBRMAN. 


\ )> 


) 


J. PBTTY MUSPBATI 


\ >> 


) 


H. T. Pkinsbp. 


\ " 


) 


W. H. Sykes." 



But though sanction had now come there was still to be consider- 
able delay before the work was actually commenced. 
workt The Government in dealing with the despatch in its 

Proceedings, No. 31 of 1st April 1851, said : " The 
Governor in Council resolves to forward a copy of this despatch to the 
Board of Eevenue in the Department of Public Works and to request 
them with reference to the resolutions of Government already icommuni- 
cated to them to report tho measures they would propose f orcarrying the 
Honourable Court's intentions into early effect. The preparatory and 
preliminary arrangements for so extensive an undertaking must neces- 
sarily bo considerable, and although these should not be made without 
full care and deliberation, the Governor in Council is of opinion that 
some advance in them may be effected during the present yearjso as 
to admit of the actual commencement of the work in the beginning of 



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62 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

1852, by which time the Godavery Anicut already in profitable operation 
may be expected to be approaching towards completion." 

Colonel Cotton was then written to Jby the Board asking him, what 
portion of his Godavari establishment he could spare for the Kistna. 
In his reply of 31st May he expresses his willingness to spare Captain 
Orr and others for the Kistna works at once, but says " of course what- 
ever officers are taken away from here will just so far delay the 
completion of this project, but there is no doubt that it is of more 
importance to commence the Kistna works than to hasten this." Gov- 
ernment however decided that actual works at the Kistna should not be 
oommenced till that at the Godavari was farther advanced. This deci- 
sion was, strange to say, not communicated to Colonel Cotton, and the 
advisability of at once carrying on the "preparatory and preliminary 
operations" seems to have been lost sight of, and the whole matter 
allowed to drop till Colonel Cotton, whose eager temperament could ill 
brook the, to him, inexplicable delay, could no longer restrain his 
impatienoe, and on 7th January 1852 he sent to the Board of Kevenue a 

very characteristic remonstrance from which the following are extracts : — 
* # * # 

"3. As the Government have not favored me with their views and 
intention on the subject, so that I have no official intimation what are the 
causes, that have led to this most dangerous delay, I am under the necessity 
of answering such difficulties as I have heard of or can suppose. 

"The only difficulty that I have been privately informed has been 
allowed to prevent the commencement of the works, is the want of officers 
to superintend it. To this I have to answer that numbers of active, intelli- 
gent, able officers and others would be delighted to be employed on these 
works ; there is nothing whatever to prevent one or two experienced Engi- 
neer Officers now employed on comparatively insignificant works being 
placed in charge of it, and if all India cannot furnish three or four others 
perfectly capable of superintending under their instructions either in the 
service or out of it, I am greatly misinformed .... I can only say 
that if the Government will place even three or four active officers who 
are no Engineers at my disposal and allow me to distribute my present 
Assistants as I may think necessary between the Godavery and Kistna 
works, I will undertake that the works shall proceed without a check, and 
with God's blessing be brought to a successful issue. Or if Government 
will merely order the execution of the work and allow me to find men to 
execute it, the works shall be carried on effectively. 

"4. I may also suppose that it is still said that money can't be spared 
for it ; I have lately in writing about these (Godavery) works, pointed out 
how completely such a difficulty is proved to be imaginary by what we here 



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KISTNA ANICUT, &C. — PROPOSALS AND SANCTION. 53 

Bee and I therefore will not repeat it but merely append the Statement of 
Revenue and Expenditure to show that bo far from the general treasury 
having had to provide money for these works, the money has actually come 
in faster than it has gone out .... I assume therefore that with 
tolerably effective Revenue management an expenditure of 3 or 4 lacs a year 
will produce an immediate effect on the collections to the same or greater 
extent. 

" 5. Another objection may be, where can you find people enough ? To 
this I answer first that this is a mere question of rate of progress ; if we 
can't find so many people as we might like to employ we should certainly 
obtain a large number. But further I have reason to believe] that employ- 
ment for the people is the very thing that's wanted in these Districts on 

various accounts I am convinced that nothing would be 

more beneficial at this moment than a large Government expenditure there. 



11 6. I cannot imagine any more objections that required to be answered ; 
whatever they are, they or others just as valid will be found whenever the 
work is talked of and I am certain if we wait for a convenient time, the 
works will never be executed. 

# # # # 

" 8. As the local officer responsible for the state of the Division committed 
to my charge and therefore bound to lay before Government my views 
on any urgent matter in which I conceive the welfare of the Division 
is involved, so far as the case is within the limits of my peculiar duties, I 
should not perform my duty if I did not thus remonstrate against the 
delay of a work on which I am persuaded not only the welfare but the very 
lives of a whole population very much depend. Indeed I cannot exonerate 
myself from the charge of neglect in not having much sooner entreated the 
Government to consider this matter 

"9. Whatever may now occur I thus relieve myself from responsibility 
of being in any way a party to the further delay of a work so long ago 
ordered by the Home authorities and of such incalculable importance to 
a part of the country liable to such awful calamities as Guntoor." 

This woke everybody up : The Board of Revenue at once addressed * 
the Government urging the immediate conimence- 

Cottotfs remonstrance 1 ! 2 ment of the work > Government promptly gave the 
necessary authority, and everything was set going. 
It was decided that the actual carrying out of the works should be entrusted 
to Captain (afterwards General) C. A. Orr, who had been the chief f Execu- 
tive officer in the construction of the Godaveri Annicut just completed. 



» Letter No. 2G, dated 15th January 1852. 

t Sec " The Engineering Works of the Gtfdavari Delta.' 1 



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( 54 ) 



CHAPTER III. 

KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD-WORKS— SITE 
AND DESIGN. 

Before proceeding to an account of the execution of the Anicut and 

Head-works, it is advisable to give a brief description of their site and 

design. 

The site finally adopted for the Anicut across the Kistna was that 

at Bezwada, which had been almost unanimously 
Sit* of Anicut. 

recommended by the various Engineers who had 

considered the subject, and by the Committee whose report has been given 

in Chapter II. It lies between the two gneissic hills of Bezwada on the 

left bank, and Sitanagaram on the right bank, their distance apart at 

river level being only about 3,900 feet. The Anicut does not however 

run from the middle of the base of one hill to that of the other, but from 

just below the down-stream toe of the Bezwada hill to the up-stream 

toe of the Sitanagaram hill, the alignment having been governed by the 

advisability of placing the work as nearly as possible at right angles to 

the axis of the stream, and by the necessity for space for the Head-works 

required above the Anicut at its flanks. 

The bed of the river at the place is of pure sand to an indefinite, and 
as yet unascertained, depth, and its surface was constantly changing, 
every flood moving the sand banks into new positions and leaving them 
when the water subsided, at different levels. 

Captain Lake in his report of 1847, printed in last chapter, said, 
ct the sections of the river at Baizwarah, taken at various periods, differ 
much each time ; for at one time the deep bed was close to Sitanagaram 
hill, and in a year or two more it will have changed over to that of 
Baizwarah, ,, and the Committco in its report (see page 35) says : " The 
current first sweeping round the Baizwarah hill, and then driven upon 
that of Sitanagaram, forms a deep bed, constant at the former but 
variable at the latter hill." 

These two deep channels naturally marked the positions for the 
" Under " or " Scouring " Sluices, which being first built might be used 
for passing the dry-weather discharge of the river, so that for some five 
months or so in each year the construction of the Anicut itself might bo 
gone on with untroubled by surface water. 



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KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD-WORKS — SITE AND DESIGN. 55 

There were practically only two types of weirs possible for the 

Anicut at Bezwada, that with a vertical drop on to 
Design for the Aniout 
and Head-work*, a rear fl° or > or apron, at or about the level of the 

bed of the stream, and that with a sloping apron 

starting from, or just below, the crest of the work. The former had been 

adopted by Arthur Cotton on the Coleroon, the latter on the G-6d&vari, 

both of them rivers with beds, like the Kistna, of pure sand. 

When the weir is " drowned," that is, when the water in the lower 
reach is above the crest, there is not much to choose between the two 
types, but when there is great difference of level between the upper and 
lower reaches and the depth in the latter is but small, the case is very 
different ; then the action of the water passing over the work is of great 
consequence, especially in streams with unstable beds, and it is a matter 
for anxious consideration whether the vertical overfall, or the sloping 
apron, form of work, shall be adopted. * With the former the disturb- 
ance caused by the impact of the falling water is very violent, but it 
takes place near the body wall and expends itself in a short distance 
from it ; with the latter form, the water rushes down the slope and is 
delivered at the lower level with an action which, though it does not 
immediately cause such violent disturbance as in the case of the vertical 
overfall, throws the lower reach into a state of agitation, setting up com- 
plex under-currents, for a much greater distance from the work, rendering 
necessary a more extended protection of the bed below the work. 

On this subject Major Cotton wrote : t " As in the Coleroon I would 
prefer building a work with a vertical fall as safer in a sandy river 
. . in any plaoe excepting one similar to the Kistna, where there is an 
unlimited supply of stone at very low rates, and where consequently 20 
cubic yards of rough-stone could be obtained at the same cost as one 
of cut-stone. When I planned the Coleroon Anicut, I considered that 
the great point in these rivers was to break the force of the water effec- 
tually, and prevent it scouring the lower channel ; and what I have here 
(Ghfrd&vari) seen makes me think still more of the importance of that 
principle. But I believe, where stone can be obtained very cheaply, a 
large mass of rough-stone, with a very long slope on the lower side, will 
be the cheapest and safest work in a sandy river." 

These considerations decided the question in favour of a work with 
a long sloping apron and extended talus of rough-stone, as shown in the 



* " The Engineering Works of the GWdavari Delta/ 1 Chapter III. 
f Report on the G6davari Anient, dated 14th April 1852. 



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56 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

sections recommended by the Committee given on the drawing facing 
page 44. That design was however considerably modified in construction 
as will be seen on comparing it and the Committee's specification with 
the section given by Captain Orr when reporting the completion of the 
work (see drawing facing pago 73) and with the sections given on plan 
No. 5, in Volume II. 

The chief differences as regards the Anicut itself were : 

(a) All arrangements connected with a 
Modifloatfcmfl o sane- magonr y bridge over the Anicut were omitted. 
Honed design. J D 

(6) No portion of the body wall was founded 

on rough-stone thrown into the river, as recommended by the Committee 
(see paragraph 3 of its specification), but entirely on a double row of 
brick foundation wells 4£ feet internal diameter, sunk between 7 and 9 feet 
into sand, and capped with a 3-feet thick platform of masonry 12 feet 
wide. On this the body wall, 10 feet wide at base and 6 feet wide at 
top, was built of rubble masonry for a height of 11 feet and capped 
with cut-stone, 1 foot thick, making a total height from bottom of wells 
to crest, of 22£ feet. 

(c) The crest of the Anicut was made at 15 feet above " Summer 
Level" or 20 * feet above so-called " deep bed" i>., one foot lower 
than originally proposed. 

(d) Instead of a crest 12 feet wide with a curved apron from it of 48 
feet length, covered with cut-stone, the apron was constructed horizontal 
for 20 feet from the rear edge of the 6 feet wide body wall (see (b) 
above), and then sloped down at 1 in 12 for 74 feet, i.e., to 100 feet from 
front edge of crest ; this apron was not covered with cut-stone as proposed, 
but with large-sized rough-stone carefully packed " on end " ; at the rear 
edge of this apron a " bind " or " retaining " wall 5 feet wide was 
constructed in the mass of stone. 

(e) The Talus beyond this apron retaining wall was continued with 
a covering of large rough-stone for another 100 feet, making, instead of 
150 feet, as proposed by the Committee, a total width of 205 feet, and 
even this has been subsequently extended by from 40 to 50 feet, whilst 
the quantity of stone which has been used in the talus is enormously 
greater than that estimated for (see Chapter IV). 

The " Under " or " Scouring " Sluices were placed at the ends of 
the Anicut in the positions and of the sizes recommended by the Com- 
mittee. According to the specification their floors were to be 7 feet 

* See Captain Orr's letter, No. 251, dated 9th August 1855. 



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KISTNA ANICUT AND HBAIXW0BKS— SITE AND DESIGN. 57 

above the " Summer Level" but this was modified by the instructions in 
the Board's letters of 18th October and of 10th Deoember of 1852, to 
1 foot lower or 6 feet above " Summer Level " ; their sills are now 6 
feet 9 inches above the old datum of " Summer Level" or 8 feet 3 inches 
below the crest of the Anicut as originally built. 

The Head-Sluices were not built in the alignment suggested by the 
Committee, the Eastern (Bezwada) Head-Sluice being placed at right 
angles to the Scouring-Sluices and close to them, whilst the Western 
Head-Sluice was placed at the head of the out to the old Tungabhadra 
channel some 500 feet away from the Sitanagaram Scouring-Sluices. The 
sizes of the Head-Sluices were reduced from 16 to 15 vents of 6 feet wide. 
The level for their floors was according to the Committee's specification to 
be 12 feet above " Summer Level, " or only 4 feet below crest of Anicut 
as then intended, but this was modified by the subsequent instructions 
referred to, to 3 feet lower or 9 feet above " Summer Level " ; their silk 
(probably somewhat raised when new shutters were fixed to them) are 
now at Bezwada 975 feet, and at Sitanagaram 9 22 feet, above the 
so-called " Summer Level" or 5*25 feet and 588 feet, respectively, below 
the Anient crest as actually originally built. 

The Locks in connection with the Head-works recommended by the 
Committee were three, viz. : two Head-Looks adjoining the Head-Sluices, 
for the passage of boats into the canals, and one " detached look in the 
Bezwada channel bank. . to enable boats to return into the river." The 
last of these was not built as it was evident that when the navigable 
canals were carried to tide-water as intended, there would be no neoessity 
to provide for the $eldom used and precarious river navigation below the 
Anicut. In the construction of the two Head-Locks the length of their 
chambers was wisely increased from 60 to 150 feet ; it was a pity that the 
width was not also increased from 16 to 20 feet, that being now the width 
of all the other locks on the through line of navigation from Cocanada 
to the " Buckingham " (" East Coast ") Canal, excepting the EUore Lock 
which is only 15 feet wide. The lengthening of the Locks was doubtless 
due to the recommendation of Colonel Cotton, made when rebuilding 
the Vizlswaram Lock at the head of the Gh5d&vari Western Delta Main 
Canal (see Extract from his Inspection Beport printed on page 66 of 
" The Engineering Works of the GKSddvari Delta "). 

Flan No. 5, Volume H, shows the positions of the Anient and 
Head-works. 



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( 68 ) 



CHAPTER IV. 

KISTNA ANIGUT AND HEAD-WORKS— EXECUTION FROM 

COMMENCEMENT IN 1852 TO COMPLETION 

IN AUGUST 1855. 

As already stated in Chapter II, the sanction of the Court of Directors 

Captain C. A. Orr was received early in 1851, and a year later, orders 

Mleotod for carrying were issued for commencement of the work under 

out the uitna Works. ^ directioll of Captain (afterwards General) 

C. A. Orr of the Madras Engineers. No better selection could possibly 
have been made, for he had just won his spurs, under Colonel Arthur 
Cotton, by successfully carrying to completion the great GhSd&vari 
Anicut, after a four years' fight against difficulties which at times 
appeared overwhelming, and the extensive experience thus acquired was 
of the very kind most needed for the Kistna work. This, though the 
Anicut was rather less than one-third the length of the masonry of its 
prototype, was a sufficiently formidable undertaking. It was no child's- 
play to have to construct on pure sand a masonry dam some 15 feet 
high * and almost three-fourths of a mile long, across the gorge of a 
river where high floods rose 40 feet and swept upwards of three-quarters 
of a million cubic feet of water per second past the plaoe. Arthur 
Cotton had, by his Cauvery and G6d4vari Anicuts, shown that such a 
work was quite possible and had settled the general lines on which it 
might be done, but to actually carry it into effect required Engineering 
skill, administrative and executive capacity, energy, and determination, 
of no mean order. It was because Captain Orr brought all these 
qualities, and extensive experience, to the direction of the Kistna Anicut 
that we find the history of its construction to have been, not indeed 
uninteresting or uninstructive but, comparatively uneventful, unmarked 
by the frequent occurrence of partial failures which so generally accom- 
panies the execution of similar works. 

The dealing with Indian rivers is facilitated by the regularity of 
the Indian seasons, which gives a considerable 

©n^S^^ew 6ai0B- P 61 * ^ k each y ear w ^ en ^nt tittk TOter is flow- 
ing, and there need be no fear of floods. That 
period is shorter on the Kistna than on the GhSddvari, because the large 

• 8* Chapter III. 



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&I8TNA ANICUT AND HBAD-W0BK8— EXECUTION, ETC. 50 

eonthern affluents of the former river are reached by the South-West 

Monsoon rains earlier than are the affluents of the GMddvari, which lie 

some degrees further north. At Bezwada the " Working season " in 

the river could not be counted on as lasting more than five months, 

from January to May, and as Captain Orr did not assume charge of 

the Kistna works till March (1852), so much of the working season 

had passed that, especially as none of the preliminary arrangements 

had been made, it was impossible for him to commence any part of the 

Anient or its " Scouring " Sluices in that year. The Board of Eevenue 

however seems, now that the work was at last 

o***?™ *™*** decided on, to have been in a hurry, for on the 
season, 1S52. J 

1st July it called on Captain Orr for information 

as to " the description and extent " of his proceedings since he had 
assumed charge, and again on the 5th July for a description of the 
general plan of operations which he proposed to follow. 

To the first of these letters he replied that the " operations have been 

directed to ascertaining the sources whence supplies 

Captain Orr's letter q{ material8 for pre8 ent and future use may be 

about operations. , . , ., ... . . . , 

obtained, to the providing of such as are required 

imm ediately, to the hutting of the small party of Sappers and Miners 
and of the people collecting at the works, to the clearing away of earth 
and rock for the laying down of railways into the quarries, to the 
removal of rock on the Seetanagram side to make room for the Under- 
sluioe, and to the excavations for the Head-sluice, and Heads of 
channels"; and after giving some particulars of these operations he 
remarks: "The rate of wages has been fixed at two annas per diem 
for an able-bodied daily man cooly, and rupees four (per mensem) for 
the same description of men engaging to work permanently in the 
quarry. Notwithstanding this liberal scale of remuneration compared 
with the prices hitherto paid for labour in this part of the oountry, very 
few people of either the adjoining districts have come in." It is of 
interest to note that the wages now paid are fully double those considered 
" liberal " by Captain Orr forty-six years ago. 

To the latter of the Board's letters he sent a reply from whioh the 
following is an extract : — 

" With reference to your letter, No. 468, of the 5th instant, I have the 
Captain Orr's letter honor to 1*7 before the Board the following statement 
as to general plan of of the general plan of proceeding I propose to follow 
proceedings, and qnes- in the construction of the Kistnah annicut. 
tions of design and exe- tl 2 Qn the evidence of the freshes, the founda- 

eution* 

tions of the head sluioes and looks, on both side* of 



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60 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTOBY. 

the river will be excavated to their full depth, and the masonry of these 
works be commenced and carried on throughout the season, as far as the 
pressure of other more important objects will allow. 

11 3. The foundations of the under sluices, at each end of the annicut, will 
be laid as soon as the river shall have fallen sufficiently; and their construc- 
tion will be pushed on as rapidly as practicable, in order that, if possible, 
the floors may be laid during the season, so as to allow the vents to be made 
use of the following year, as outlets for the river, while the body of the dam 
is in progress. 

" 4. It has been found at the Godavery, that, when the body of the 
anniout rested on a mass of loose stone thrown in to fill up hollows in the 
river bed, as at the sites of the various breaches that occurred during the 
progress of the work, it was not only difficult, but almost impossible, to 
render the dam water-tight ; the leakage at those places being, not mere 
percolation, as along the rest of the work which was supported on wells 
sunk in the sand, but strong continuous streams flowing, at a great depth, 
through the large open interstices of the rough stones, as through inverted 
syphons. As there can be no doubt that the same thing would occur here, 
wherever the annicut should rest upon rough stone, thrown in to fill up the 
hollows in the bed of this river, it is my intention not to fill in these 
hollows on the line of the body of the work, but on that of the apron, and 
then to fill up in front to the proper level with sand, on which wells will be 
sunk, and thereon the anniout be built. In order to facilitate this mode of 
proceeding, the railways are intended to enter the bed of the river behind 
the under sluices as nearly on the level of their floors as possible. After the 
first year, the rails will be carried over the floors on raised temporary piers, 
to avoid causing any obstruction to the discharge of water through the 
sluices. These arrangements will of course be modified by the rate of 
progress, and other circumstances, as the works proceed. It is impossible to 
determine now the amount of work that it will be in our power to do the 
first season : I hope, however, to get down all the wells under the body of 
the work, and to raise that to a uniform height of a few feet. 

"6. Except increasing the thickness of the rubble masonry covering oi 
the annicut from two to four feet, I do not think of taking upon myself 
the responsibility of making any material alteration in the section recom- 
mended by the committee ; but I am desirous that the question of the 
elevation to be given to the annicut, and the advisability of building into the 
body of the dam foundations for piers on which hereafter a bridge may be 
erected, should be taken into the reconsideration of the Board, and Colonel 
Cotton's opinion and judgment on these points be ascertained. 

"6. From what I have seen of the tremendous power of the fall over the 
Tijaiswarum branch of the Godavery annicut, which is only about 16 feet 
above the bed of the river, at the shallowest part below, I cannot look 



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* KISttTA ANICUT AND HBAD-WOBK 8— EXECUTION, ETC. 6l 

forward without misgivings to the effect of the somewhat more rapid stream 
of this river falling over a dam raised 20 feet above the bed of the river at 
the ford; and having observed some calculations lately made by Colonel 
Cotton, on the face of a memorandum of levels, that seems accidentally to 
have come under his notice, my doubts have been strengthened as to the 
practicability of maintaining in security, a work of suoh a height, except by 
the employment of a vastly increased amount of rough material, above that 
which has been calculated upon. Colonel Cotton there grounds his calcu- 
lations of the relative command of this and the Godavery anniout, on the 
supposition that this anniout will be raised to a height of 16 feet above the 
bed of the ford. As it could scarcely have escaped his mind, that Captain 
Lake proposed to make the work 18 feet, and the committee 21 feet high, 
I am led to infer that he considered 16 feet to be the maximum elevation 
which oould safely be given. 

" 7. Since the anniout, as recommended by the committee and sanctioned, 
will of itself obstruct so large a proportion as fully £ ths of the bed of the 
river at the height of the floods, it seems to me out of the question that it 
can ever be advisable, even if practicable, to still further decrease the area 
of the remaining water-way by the erection of piers to carry a masonry 
bridge, grand and beneficial as such a structure would no doubt be. If 
there be any doubt, as I think there is, of the possibility of constructing, 
eventually, such a bridge as is proposed^over the auhicut, it will be well at 
once to consider the question, in order that, should it be decided against, the 
expense of the foundations of the piers within the body of the anniout may 
be saved, and in that case, that we may be freed from the difficult and 

tedious operation of building these foundations." 

# * # # 

In this letter it will be seen that Captain Orr deals with interesting 
questions of design and execution, and it will be convenient to state 
what was done about these before proceeding with the narrative of the 
progress of the work. 

On the 18th October the Board, advised by the Engineer Officer 
who, in those days, it had attached to it as a* Public Works Secretary, 

expressed to Captain Orr the following opinions : — 

# # # * 

'' 2. The Board fully approve of your intention to fill up the hollows in 

Board's Opinions *^ e ^ e ^ °* ^e ^ ver tm ^ ep the body of the annicut with 
on Captain Orr's sand instead of stone, but they do not perceive why 
suggestions. those under the apron should not be filled up in the 

same way, and they therefore direct me to request that you will follow 
the same plan in this respect for the whole work. Should you however 
have objections to this mode of procedure, you are requested to state them, 
in order that they may be considered and answered. 



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6% ZX1TNA DELTA BK0ZNBBB1KQ HIITOBY. 

4< 3. With regard to the height of the annicut, the Board direct me to 
observe in the first place, that you have reckoned it from the zero point of 
the register, instead of, as they believe it should be, from the mean bed of 
tbe river, which appears from the section to be five or six feet higher. If 
this opinion is correct, the true height of the annicut, as sanctioned, is only 
at the most 16 feet ; but the Board are of opinion that the height to which 
it is eventually to be raised cannot be properly now determined. The work 
should be raised gradually, with rough stone on a continuous slope to the 
rear-most point of the apron, which it will probably be desirable to fix at a 
greater distance from the front wall than that which the committee have 
allowed. By proceeding in this way, the ultimate limit of height will 
be fixed after accurate observation of the effects of successive seasons of 
freshes ; and the covering of masonry may be altogether, or for the most 
part, deferred to the same period. 

11 4. In order to allow for a low height of the work, should circumstances 
render it necessary, the floor of the annicut sluices should, in the opinion of 
the Board, be four feet above the summer-level or mean bed, and that of 
the head sluices and lock four feet higher. These levels, it is believed, will 
answer sufficiently well for any height that is likely to be determined. 

" 5. The Board agree in your opinion that the proposed masonry piers of 
the bridge should be omitted. 

" 6. In conclusion, they direct me to request that you will submit your 
opinion upon any of the foregoing suggestions, should you think it neces- 
sary to do so, or otherwise that you will conform your plan of operations 
thereto as far as possible. " 

# # # # 

To this Captain Orr replied thus in his letter No. 203 of 5th 
November : 

" I have the honor to acknowledge your letter, No. 659, of the 18th 
ultimo, conveying the Board's opinion on the several 

* p questions mooted in my letter of the 30th July. 

"2. The Board, while approving of my intention of 
filling up the hollows in the bed of the river under the body of the annicut 
with sand, instead of stone, remark, that it does not perceive why those 
under the apron should not be filled up in the same manner, and direct me 
to follow that plan for the whole work. My object in proposing to fill up, 
under the body of the work, with sand, is to prevent the great leakage 
that would take place, were the dam founded entirely on stone, thrown 
in to fill up deep hollows ; but, as I consider that the stability of the 
structure will much depend upon the thickness of the rough stone along 
its rear, where the full power of the over-fall will exert its force, I think 
it most advisable, while guarding against leakage, by filling in with 



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XISTOA AlflCUT AND HBAD-WORKS — EXECUTION, BTC. 63 

•and under the body of the work, to fill in with stone behind. Whaterer 
the section of the anniout may be, whether it be made as proposed by the 
committee, or of a uniform slope from the front wall to the rear-most point, 
I believe it so advantageous to get the rough stone to as great a depth as 
possible, towards the rear, that I shall venture to take upon myself to 
adhere to my original plan, unless the Board will issue to me positive 
orders to the contrary .... 

" 3. In reckoning the height of the annicut, I have followed the same 
course as was adopted at the Godavery, where the annicut has always been 
oonsidered to be 12 feet above the deep bed, and not 12 feet above its mean 
level at the time of commencing the work ; as may easily be seen by referring 
to one of the sections taken at that period .... 

" 4. In order to allow of a lower height of annicut than that proposed, 
I shall follow the Board's instructions, to make the floors of the under and 
head sluices, as nearly as possible, four feet, and eight feet respectively, above 
summer level. I beg, however, to point out that such an alteration of the 
levels of those floors, with a view to raising them hereafter, if it be found 
possible to build the annicut of the full height, will cause some increased 
difficulties of construction, owing to the greater trouble requisite to obtain 
adequate foundations, and to the necessity of waiting till the river has 
fallen to its lowest point before they can be commenced. As the sluice vents 
must be built to suit the higher level, the shuttnrs and lock gates must be 
made four feet deeper than was intended, and by their greater height, and 
the greater pressure of water against them, they will be rendered more 
unmanageable than those of the smaller size, which are known to be suffi- 
ciently troublesome to work. If, in consequence of the annicut not being 
raised about 16 or 17 feet, the channels have to be cut down to the level on 
which the floors of the sluices are now ordered to be laid, an immense addi- 
tional amount of excavation will be required ; and, as was pointed out by 
the oommittee, a much diminished area of the delta will be irrigated. The 
uncertainty of the future level of the main feeders will also materially 
interfere with the prosecution of arrangements for the distribution of the 
water." 

After considering this letter the Board modified its instructions as 

Alterations In ltvels *° *^ e ^ eYe ^ 9 * or ^he floors of the sluices, deciding 

of Head and Scouring- {hat those of the " Soouring-sluioes " should be at 

•luieos deeidod on. 6 feet above M Summer-level " and those of the 

Head-sluices at feet above " Summer-level " or 3 feet lower than laid 
down in the " Specification " submitted by the Committee, but the Board 
adhered to its opinion as to the advisability of filling up the deep parts 
of the river under the apron and talus with sand and not with stone. 
The following is their letter on the subject :— 



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64 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

" 1 . I am directed by the Board of Revenue to inform you, with reference 
to your representation respecting the filling of the deep 
VovomborlSSS. P*** 8 °' * ne r * ver at Bairwarah, that they consider, 

" 1st. That there can be no advantage in having 
one part of the apron thick, while all the rest is thin. 

" 2d. That the deep places are much deeper than there could be any 
advantage in filling with stone, even if it could be done the whole length 
of the work. 

" 3d. On this account it seems clear, that it would be quite a useless 
expense ; and as the sums required to fill up this space with stone would 
be very considerable, it seems a point of some importance to avoid the 
expenditure. 

" 4th. The front part must of necessity be filled with sand as you propose ; 
and it seems as if the loose stones in rear would, if they had any effect, 
preserve openings into which the sand from under the front of the work 
might be carried, and thus cause the front masonry to sink ; so that it would 
certainly be safer for the whole work to rest on sand. 

" 2. After much consideration of your views on the point the Board, upon 
the whole, conclude that you should bring the whole bed of the river under 
the work to one uniform level with sand, before commencing upon the stone 
work. The Board are very anxious not to interfere with your own proposed 
plan of proceeding ; but in this case it appears to them necessary to direot 
that, on the grounds stated, the work should be carried on as here shown. 

" 3. With respect to the levels of the floors of the sluices, the Board are 

of opinion that, to enable you to proceed with them at an earlier date, the 

floor of the head sluice may be laid one foot higher, and that of the under 

Ho. 659. sluice, two feet higher than was fixed in their letter 

of 18th October, 1852, thus leaving only three feet 

between the levels of the floors of the two sluices. 

" 4. Should you have already commenced throwing in stone into the deep 
places, that work should be stopped, and the remainder should be completed 
with sand." 

There can be no doubt that the Board was quite right in this matter 
and that it would have been a useless expense to have filled in the deep 
places with stone. 

Till December (1852) no work was attempted in the bed of the river, 

and the operations consisted ohiefly of irettinir 

CommonotmoiLt of - , J ° © 

towfenutton work. together boats and other plant, opening quarries 

on the Bezwada and Sitanagaram Hills and laying 

down tramways in connection with them, collecting lime-stone and other 

materials, erecting buildings, and exoavating the upper portions of the 



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KMTNA ANICUT AND HEAD-WORKS — EXECUTION, ETC. 65 

foundations for the Head-sluioes and Looks and parts of the ohannels 
leading away from them. Early in December, however, Captain Orr, 
thinking that theife was no fear of the river rising again in that season, 
oompleted the excavations for the foundations of the Head-sluioes and 
Looks and commenced all the masonry work. Scarcely had he done so 
when the river rose suddenly to a height most unusual at that time of 
year ; it broke into the foundations and submerging 

December 1858. *^ e we ^ 8 » P u * a ^P *° *he proceedings for three 

weeks." Operations were resumed on the 5th 
January (1853), and during the ensuing working season the Head- 
sluioes, Locks, and Scouring-sluioes at the flanks of the Anicut, were 
pushed on with, and well advanced ; and some of the foundation wells of 
the body wall of the Anicut itself were sunk, before the first freshes of 
the South-West Monsoon of 1853. Then, as though to give a foretaste 

_, ,_ m m „ , of its power to those about to meddle with it, 

High flood, July 1S68. r 

the Eistna came down in one of its greatest floods. 

On 20th July Captain Orr wrote thus : 

* # # # 

" 4. As the river has reached a height of about 39 feet on the Seetanagrum 
register,* this is a greater fresh than has ever perhaps been seen by any 
man now living. All our masonry has been overtopped by the water, but 
I believe no damage has been done. It is impossible to tell, till the river 
falls, what effect on the foundation of the Seetanagrum under-sluioe and the 
portion of the front retaining wall of the anniout there commenced, is 
being produced by the excessive set of the current on that side of the river ; 
but as the work is pretty well defended by rough stone, I hope no injury 
will occur. 

"5. All the embankments of the river and the ohannels, throughout 
both districts, being topped and breached, the whole Delta is laid under 
several feet of water, and the inhabitants of numerous villages are driven 
to take refuge on the roofs of their houses, and on trees, where they have 
been obliged to remain for several days. I fear enormous damage has 
been caused to the public works, and that the people are buffering severe 
privations and losses, particularly of cattle." 

Out of this trial, suoh works as had already been constructed came 
scatheless, but it was clear that the Committee had been mistaken in 
supposing that a very slight amount of embanking above Bezwada would 
suffice to keep the river in floods from there overflowing its margin and 

* The zero of this " register " was evidently old " deep bed," or 5 feet below 
assumed," Summer-lerel." 

I 



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66 KI8TNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

sweeping over the deltaic lands. On the right side of the river, it is 
true, only a mile of embankment, to the Undavilly hill, proved sufficient ; 
but on the left side an embankment in many parts of considerable height 
and section, had to be constructed for about 8 miles to Ibrahampatam, 
to prevent river floods from sweeping down the valley of the Budam^ru ; 
when they have done this even to a comparatively small extent, through 
breaches in the embankment, they have caused great damage to the Ellore 
canal and to the lands and works in the Ghidiv&da taluk. 

The original cost of these embankments is not known. After the 
flood of August 1896 estimates were sanctioned of Es. 12,200 and Bs. 
63,200 for their repair and strengthening, the former sum being for the 
right, and the latter for the left embankment (see P.M.6K, No. 1015 I, 
dated 13th November 1897). 

During the flood season of 1853 the only masonry work that could 
be proceeded with on the Aniout and Head-works was the finishing off 
of the Sluices and Locks, but when the river was fairly low a considerable 
quantity of stone for the apron and talus was deposited in position. As 
soon as the next working season set in, operations were commenced 
along the whole length of the Anicut. 

The following " Statement" shows the quantities 

anwlMi 10 6nd ° f °* a W01 * ( * one com P are< * ^t* 1 *ke estimate, up 
to end of January 1854 : — 



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KJ8TKA aKICUT AND EtEAD-WORKS — EXECUTION, ETC. 



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68 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEEBING HISTORY. 

The season of 1854 proved most favourable for work as during it 

the " Scouring sluices " were able to pass all the water which came down 

the river. Advantage was taken of this to push 

Sapid progress in on with the Anicut, and so quick was the progress 

working nuob of 1S54. that by the end of Mftroh Captain 0r r was able to 

report : — 

" 3. The front retaining wall, is now built quite across the river to a height 
of 15 J feet above the Seetanagrum Register, or one foot above the level of 
the floors of the sluices at the heads of the main channels. It is backed, 
throughout a great part of its length, with masses of rough stone sufficient, 
I believe, to protect that part against the action of the freshes ; and if the 
other portions, now only scantily protected with stone, can be equally well 
backed up before the river came down, the whole work will, I think, be 
secure. All, therefore, now depends upon the quantity and distribution of 
the stone that can be quarried and deposited during the next two months. 1 ' 

The progress continued to be satisfactory for those two months also. 

Just when everything was going on so well, 

Dsspateh of Court the Court of Directors was having an attack of 

of Doctors about tup. nemmsneeg abont the wor fc as will be seen from 

posed disasters to 

works. the following extract from its Despatch No. 15, 

28th June 1854:— 

"The Kistna Anicut appears to have been visited by a series of 
disastrous occurrences from its commencement. The rails and appa- 
ratus which were sent from England for the " plant " of the Anicut by the 
" BidstoD," were lost by the wreck of that vessel ; cholera broke out among 
the workmen and occasioned delay by driving them from the works, and 
on the 20th July 1853 a higher flood had occurred than was remembered 
by any living person. 

" We have not received any professional reports showing the amount of 
damage done to the works, though the letters of the Collectors indicate 
considerable destruction of property. 

" Up to the end of June last, the total amount expended on the Kistna 
Anicut was Es. 3,08,792-7-8, but until the effects of the inundation are 
fully ascertained, it is impossible to hazard an opinion as to the present 
condition of the work, nor can it be known how much of the outlay has 
been wasted." 

Of course the " Court " was speedily reassured on the subject and 
shown that instead of having been exceptionally unfortunate the work 
had met with fewer mishaps than is usually the case with such under- 
takings. 



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KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD-WOfcKS — EXECUTION, ETC. 6*J 

The quantities of the chief kinds of work carried 
tag season 1864* ou * * n *^ 8 8eason between the end of January (see 

statement printed above) and end of June were— 

Bough stone •• . . . . 404,109 cubic feet. 

Bubble 243,351 do. 

Gut stone . • . . . . • . 15,255 do. 

Brickwork in mortar . • . . 1,188 do. 

Earthwork •• . . .. . . 112,118 cubic yards. 

Foundation wells No. 126. # 

From the letter sent by Captain Orr with the statement from which 
the above quantities are taken, the following considerable extracts are 
given, because they deal with the interesting subjects of (1) great addi- 
tional quantity of stone required for the Anicut talus, (2) the omission 
of the " cut stone" with which the apron was to be covered, and (3) the 
beneficial effects of the works even in their very incomplete state. 

"5. The estimate, therefore, seems to be in a pretty satisfactory state ; 
Extract from Captain ^ ut ** ex P er ience an< * an extended knowledge of the 
Orr'i letter, 272, 11th strength of the current of this river through the 
August 1804. gorge where the annicut is placed, teach how ex- 

tremely hazardous it will be to raise the work to the great height intended, 
unless at the same time an immense additional quantity of Btonebe deposited 
in extent equal perhaps to the allowance of it made in the estimate, a further 
heavy grant of money will be required, if it be considered indispensable to 
finish off the work with a covering of masonry and dressed stone ; and in 
that case the estimate of the probable cost might be this, 

Ri. A. P. 

20,000 cubic yards of Rubblo Masonry at 2 Kb. 6 As. 47,600 

15,000 cubic yards of cut stone oasing at 5 Rs. ... 75,000 
250,000 tons of rough stone in heavy masses at 

10 As 1,56,250 

Superintendence 48,000 

Sundries, contingencies, plant, Ac 60,000 

Total Rs. ... 3,86,750 

from which deducting money in hand, there would remain to be provided 
for by a further grant, Eupees 1,90,076, or say two lacs of Rupees. 

" 6. There appears to me, however, to be no actual necessity for giving 
a covering of masonry ; and I think both it and the casing of cut stone 
may be omitted with advantage, at all events for some seasons till the body 
of the work, composed of rough stone, has had time to settle and become 
consolidated. The annicut, as it at present stands, consisting simply of a 



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70 KJSTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

substantial masonry wall, backed by rough stone only partially packed, is 
quite as effective as if it were covered with masonry, and is far safer, 
because the stream, instead of being precipitated over a smooth impervious 
surface, and thereby acquiring a force which on this river would be almost 
irresistible, is able, on topping the wall, to find its way into and through the 
interstices of the stone, in such quantities, as suffices to fill the bed below 
the dam, almost up to the level of the rear portions of it, before any heavy 
overfall can take place ; and the roughness of the surface breaks up and 
impedes the velocity, so as thoroughly to destroy its power on the bed of 
the river below the line of the work. For these reasons, and because the 
masonry cannot be done till after the additional stone is deposited, from the 
want of sufficient labour to carry on and complete both operations simul- 
taneously, I believe the prudent, if not the only possible mode of procedure 
for raising the annicut to its requisite height, will be to add to the elevation 
of the present wall, and to throw in behind it rough stone to the value of 
the whole of the money in hand ; and in this way, as we possess the means 
of quarrying and transporting a quantity of stone, limited only by the 
amount of labour we can obtain, and can deposit it in ponderous blocks, we 
should have no difficulty in raising the present dam during, the ensuing 
season at least four feet more, and in making it up with a section so 
stupendous as to render it perfectly secure against even the excessive force 
that the fall of this river, over such an obstruction as would then exist, may 
be expeoted to exert. As the raising of the wall might be done in a few 
weeks when the river has fallen sufficiently low, water would afterwards be 
retained at a level of five feet above the beds of the main channels, and 
thereby not only afford a supply for them throughout the hot weather, but 
also give us the means of transport for materials for the construction of the 
masonry works in the Delta, which might be commenced and pushed on 
rapidly, with the bricklayers and stone-cutters who would be available in 
consequence of the execution of the masonry covering of the annicut being 
dispensed with or deferred — and thus the earliest possible effect would be 
given to the project, and the most immediate benefits be derived. 

" 7. As then the completion of the annicut, according to the original plan 
and specifications, without an immense addition of the rough material on 
which the security of the work must entirely depend, is not in my opinion 
advisable or safe, and as a masonry covering, though it would add to the 
appearance and finish of the dam, would rather tend to weaken than 
strengthen it, and would not make it one whit more effective as a means 
of irrigating the Delta, I recommend that we be permitted to expend 
the balance, allotted in the estimate for masoniy, upon the raising and 
strengthening the dam, as I have proposed, by simply increasing the height 
of the present wall, which is amply strong, and by the deposition behind it 
of as much rough stone as our means will allow. 



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KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD-WOBKS — EXECUTION, ETC. 71 

"8. The excavations, to connect three of the principal existing channels 
with the annicnt, haying been so far advanced as to have been available on 
the filling of the river, a large quantity of water has been flowing into the 
districts for some weeks past, and all the tanks dependant on those channels, 
with only a few unimportant exceptions, have obtained a supply with which 
to enable the ryots to begin their cultivation under very favorable circum- 
stances, although not at such an early period as usual, owing to the 
extraordinary lateness of the river. As the water admitted into the channels 
is now under regulation by sluices, and the supply, instead of being 
precarious and uncertain as heretofore, will even this year be continuous for 
some four months longer in consequence of the action of the annicut, in 
even its present state, our operations are already telling, and must be very 
beneficially felt in the country ; as the rains have as yet been scanty and 
continue to hold off." 

The Board of Eevenue and Government dealt with the above in 
the letter and " Minutes of Consultation' ' from which extracts arc given 
below : — 

" 3. Before, however, entering upon this point (of omitting the masonry 

Coniidorfttion of, and coverin £ of foe annicut), the Board <vill notice, with 

deeiiion on, points reference to Extract from Minutes of Consultation of 

StoJ ******* ***'' the 19th of A P ril > 18 H the Civil Engineer's report 

upon the present state of the annicut, the actual outlay, 

and the probable amount required for the completion of the works. 

" 4. The annicut, it will be seen, has suffered no damage that can be 
perceived, from the freshes which have passed over it at all heights up to 
31 J feet on the river register. 

"5. The amount expended to the end of June was Bupees 5,69,867-2-1, 
and the balance of the estimate Bupees 1,96,674-2-1 . To finish the annicut, 
according to the original design, with a complete covering of masonry would 
not cost more than the amount of the balance, were it not, in the opinion of 
the Civil Engineer, absolutely necessary that the work, when raised to its 
full height, should be very greatly strengthened by the addition of rough 
stone, at an extra expense of about two lacs. But the Civil Engineer finds 
the section of the annicut in its present state so favorable to its stability, 
that he strongly recommends the omission of the masonry covering, and the 
appropriation of the balance entirely to the completion of the front wall to 
the intended height, and to the addition of rough stone to the apron. 

" 6. The annicut in its present state exceeds in dimensions any work of 
the kind previously constructed in the same relative circumstances ; and its 
form of section, which differs considerably from all hitherto used, has 



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72 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEEBING HI8T0RY. 

succeeded so well as yet, that there is every reason to believe that it will 
prove equally suitable wheu the height of the work is increased, and its 
stability put to much greater trial. 

" Under any circumstances the additional rough stone to the apron is 
absolutely necessary ; and the prosecution of the operations of the present 
year till the requisite height and strength are attained, seems clearly the 
most judicious course. After another season of freshes it may be finally 
determined, from the observations then made, whether to complete the 
work with a masonry covering, or to leave it, as it now is, a wall with a 
rough stone apron. The Board, therefore, strongly recommend that the 
proposition of the Civil Engineer on the subject of the annicut section may 
be approved." 

" Extract from the Minutes of Consultation No. 1263, dated 29M 
September, 1854." 

" Under all the circumstances represented in Captain Orr's report on the 
Kistnah annicut, which forms the enclosure to the above letter, the Bight 
Honorable the Governor in Council can see no objection to the proposal 
made by that officer, in consideration of the present state of the work being 
so favorable to its stability, to dispense with the complete covering of 
masonry contemplated in the original design as the finishing of the annicut, 
and, instead, to appropriate 4 the balance * of the estimate 
' ' * to the raising of the front wall to the intended height 

with the addition of rough stone to the apron, especially as his Lordship in 
Council observes that Captain Orr justifies his proposal by solid arguments 
in its favor." 

The course advocated by Captain Orr and approved by Government of 
dispensing with the cut stone covering of the apron did not prove in any 
way detrimental to the work ; only on the top of the body wall 6 feet 
wide, was such covering (1 foot thick) ever carried out. 

The great amount of stone required for the apron and talus in addi- 
tion to that anticipated was in accordance with experience at all similar 
works (see Chapter III, " Engineering Works, G6ddvari Delta "). 

Between July and December (1854) scarcely anything could be done 
to the Anicut, but about the middle of the latter month the river had fallen 
sufficiently to allow of the tramways being relaid in the bed of the river 
and work was resumed with vigour, every effort being directed to 
getting the Anicut completed in that working season (1854-55), and thi$ 
was successfully accomplished. 

By the end of May Captain Orr was able to report " the Anicut is 
now so nearly completed that I am bringing operations to a close for the 



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SECTION « a* 







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' STONE o o ;>W^y- m lS 111 . : ^ii2i^^£M^ 



PLAN and SEOTIONt 
of tne 

ANICUT 

Constructed across the 

RIVER KRISTNA 

AT 

BEZOARAH 

IN 

1853 1854 & 1855 

I Submitted by Captain C A Orr > 

I with hia letter No }JI 9th Aufuit IBS6 J 



-SH. 



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100 CO O lOO 200 SOP 40O ^ 



ENLARGED SEC 




Reg: No. 3884 
Copies 410 



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LINE . ABC D E F looki^EaM 



■BUn— l ag Hlrtoiy 







Scale for General Plan. 
too eoo poo 1000 



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TION OF ANICUT. 



»/ *■¥ part $ fitter 



f8lm«d) Charles AOrr Captain 
Civil EnlaHriMr in chart* Kiatna DivMton 
***»• 20th IS35 




Photo-Prim Suavey am**, Madras 
1897 



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&I8TNA ANICUT AND HEAD-WORKS — EXECUTION, ETC. 73 

season in preparation for the approaching freshes and in full expectation 

Completion of Anient °* tkeir having no effect on the stability of the 

and] Head-works re- work" ani in letter 251, 9th August 1855, from 

" which the following is an extract, he reports the 

completion of the work : — 

" To the Chief Engineer in the 2.P. JF. 9 

Madras. 
Sib, 

The receipts and expenditure on account of the Kistnah annicut np to 
the 31st July, 1866, are — 

BS. A. P. 

By cash received from the Collector's Treasury np to 

the end of June, 1865 7,31,789 3 

By cash received during the month of Jnly ... 16,975 13 7 

Total Co.'s Bs. ... 7,48,764 13 10 



Expended np to the end of June, 1855 6,88,616 8 

Expended during the month of July, 1855 10,121 3 

Advances 6,904 15 

Articles remaining 15,170 7 1 

Becoverable 20,074 12 8 

Cash in hand 8,877 8 3 



Total Co/e Re. ... 7,48,764 13 10 



" 2. In submitting the above statement I have the honor to report that 
the annicut has been completed to the extent, and in the manner proposed 
by me in my letter of the 11th August 1864, No. 272, and approved by 
Government in Minutes of Consultation, under date the 29th September 1854, 
No. 1263 ; that is, the front retaining wall has been raised to a height of 20 
feet above the deep bed of the river, and has been backed by a large mass 
of rough stone consisting of more than half a million of tons in blocks of all 
sizes up to five and even to six tons in weight, forming altogether a dam 
nearly 200 feet in width. At 100 feet from the front a second retaining 
wall is built, having its top 6 feet below the crest ; and between the two the 
surface of the work is roughly packed with stone on end, as tightly fixed 
together as possible by quarry rubbish rammed into the interstices. Behind 
the rear wall the dam is continued for nearly another hundred feet, by 
masses of the largest sized stone. Thus the form aud construction of the 
annicut greatly differ from the more finished but infinitely weaker section 
originally proposed for it, as the covering of the top and a portion of the 
•lope with masonry of rubble and dressed stone is dispensed with, and in 
lieu of it a vastly increased amount of material, in the shape of large blocks 
of rough stone, has been employed. As two freshes of upwards of 30 feet 
each have now passed over the work, its .stability has been well tested, and 

K 



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74 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

apparently with the most satisfactory results ; for though the state of the 
rear portion of the dam cannot be judged of for some time till the river 
subsides, the crown and slope can be seen # to be in good order, and with the 
exception of a stone displaced here and there, the roughly packed surface 
seems to stand extremely well. This proves that the masonry covering is 
not necessary ; and therefore, as it can add nothing to the efficiency of the 
work, but would weaken rather than strengthen it, as shown in my letter 
above referred to, I would recommend its omission, and that all future outlay 
on the annicut be directed to the deposition behind it of additional quanti- 
ties of stone in heavy masses, and to the puddling in front with day. Some 
repairs and additions of rough stone will annually be required for some time 
to come ; but the work being of a description to consolidate, and become 
more and more secure in course of time, the expense of its maintenance must 
ultimately amount to but a fractional percentage on its cost. 

"3. The large sluices and locks adjoining the annicut being, with one 
partial exoeption, well and massively built, no apprehensions have ever been 
felt for their security. The exception is the Seetanagrum under-sluioe, which, 
owing to the utter impossibility experienced in obtaining skilled laborers from 
the Guntoor distriot when these operations were commenced, was not so well 
constructed as the rest of the works, and being founded partly on solid rock, 
and partly on a mass of rough stone of great depth, shows the effects of 
unequal settlement, from a slight subsidence of the latter in consequence of 
leakage taking place through it, in spite of all the precautions adopted to 
prevent it. The settlement is so trifling as not to endanger the sluices ; but 
the leakage is so serious an evil that it must be checked by extending the 
front apron several yards, and by puddling extensively all around. 

*' 4. The plan and section accompanying this clearly explain the nature 
and arrangement of the works now so nearly completed as to be in full oper- 
ation, filling all the channels that have as yet been connected with them, and 
conferring on portions of the country the immense benefit of an abundant 
and continuous supply of water. The accompanying sketch map of the 
Delta shows that by means of old channels which have been connected with 
the new main feeders, water from the annicut is being extensively diffused 
even this season, especially in the Masulipatam district by the many branohes 
of the Poolairoo ; but it at the same time shows how little has yet been done 
to extend irrigation by the formation of the necessary new channels. As the 
unusually heavy excavations near the annicut, which have involved immense 
labor and expense are finished, more rapid progress, than has hitherto been 
possible, might now be made with those channels, had the estimates for 
them, entered in my budget for the current year, been sanctioned instead of 
referred to England. 

" 6. The cost of the annicut and of the portion of the works already 
sanctioned, to give partial effect to it, amounts to nearly fifteen lacs of 



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SKETCH MAP 

OFTMf 

DELTA of the KRISTNA RIVER 

SHOWING THE PRINCIPAL LINES OF CHANNELS 
from the BEZOARAH ANICUT. 



(Sent with CtpUIn Orr's lettaw No. Ml Bth August 1855) 
(From VoL IV Professional P w jii l Madras Engineers) 




Civil Engineer'* Office. Kislnah Division 
Camp ai Bexemrah 
eth August I85S. 



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REFERENCE. 

Natural and old channels where water isflowing — ~— *— 

Channels already newly formed, or unproved. — 

Do. sanctioned, and under formation 

Do. projected, but not yet sanctioned._ 

Do. being laid out and estimated for.__ 

A. Site of Boodemalr Aqueduct. 

B. Probable position of an Aqueduct to convey 
water in to the Divvy Purgunnah. 



OF 



(Signed.) Charles A. Orr Captain 

Civil Enfr. In charge Klstnah Dlvn. 



Photo-Print Survey Office. Madras. 

niniti7Pd h I8S7 



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KISTNA ANICUT AND HEAD-WOBKS — EXECUTION, ETC. 75 

Bupees. Fifteen lacs more will probably be required for the completion 
of the undertaking, and the faster it can be laid ont the sooner will the 
country be benefited, and the treasury reimbursed ; while on the other hand, 
as the improvement of the country is essentially dependent on the spread of 
irrigation by channels, and on the opening out of cheap communications by 
their means, any hesitation in sanctioning their extension, throughout 
every portion of the Delta, can only have the effect of withholding from the 
people the prosperity that is all but within their reach, and of depriving 
the State, first of the immediate returns it might obtain on the past outlay, 
and secondly of the permanent increase of revenue that would result from 
the speedy and thorough development of the projected irrigation scheme." 

In dealing with this letter, two months later, Government remarked 
(GhO., No.641, dated 5th October 1855). 

" 2. The satisfactory completion of the Kistnah annicut, as now reported 

Orders of Government is M £ M y gratifying *> *>» Government, and they con- 
on completion of the eider that muoh credit is due to Captain Orr. He 
*°* k * has evinced great professional skill and judgment 

in conducting this vast and difficult work, and has set an example to the 
officers under Inm by his forethought, his constant attention to his duty, the 
systematic and judicious arrangements he has made, and the zeal and energy 
which have on all occasions characterized his proceedings; and the Gov- 
ernment have muoh pleasure in recording their recognition of his valuable 

SeTVioee." 

And so one of the boldest and most useful engineering works In 
Seant notice of sue- ^dia — a work which has oonferred inestimable 
oettfol oxeontion of the benefits on hundreds of thousands of human beings, 
wo^ks • and on which is now directly dependent a revenue 

of between 20 and 30 lakhs of rupees a year — was brought to completion 
without any flourish of trumpets, with merely a more or less perfunctory 
official acknowledgment of the services of the officer who had directed the 
operations, and without a word of commendation for the staff of offioers 
and subordinates to whose energy and devotion was largely due the 
successful completion of the work. 

The total cost of the " Anient and Head-works," 
Total eost of Anient deluding the excavation of the heads of the two 
andHoad-wox . ^^ ^^ was R 8 . 7,72,186 .• 



* It is of interest to note that the Railway bridge, built in 1890-93, near the Anient 
and of the same length at it, coat between five and six times as muoh as the whole 
Anient and Head-works. 



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( 76 ) 



CHAPTER V. 

THE ANIOUT AND HEAD-W0RK8 SINCE 
CONSTRUCTION. 

Compared with the GhSd&vari Anient and Head-works, those of the 
Kistna had for many years after construction an uneventful history ; none 
of them has ever been destroyed nor, till of late years, have any of them 
given cause for serious anxiety. Eeoently however they have fallen 
on troublous times which require notice ; and there are also matters 
of considerable interest connected with them which it seems advisable 
to deal with in a chapter immediately following that which has given 
an account of the construction of the works. 

As beqabds the Anciut itself : It will be remembered* that pro- 
vision was made in the sanctioned estimate for 
the Astout'. * building with the Anicut, piers for a masonry 

bridge of 49 arches of 61 feet span over the whole 
length of the work, but that, on the recommendation t of Captain Orr, 
those piers were not built. In 1854 however he revived the idea of 
bridging; the Anicut, but with a timber ', instead of a masonry, structure, 
and with his letter No. 416, dated 20th December 1854, he forwarded plans 
and an estimate of 2 lakhs for the work, which received the sanction of the 
Government of India. Thirty bays were erected at an expenditure, 
including cost of timber obtained but not worked up, of Es. 1,51)760, 
when further progress was arrested by the restrictive orders issued on 
aooount of the Mutiny. Before the work could be resumed it became 
evident from the effect of the portion which had been carried out that 
there were great drawbacks to such a structure ; it was aooordingly 
decided + not to proceed with it and to remove what 
bridge abandoned ** ^ad already been done, selling the timber, or using 
it up on other works. 
On this being reported to the Government of India it somewhat 
unkindly remarked " The Government of Madras subjects itself to a 
oharge of inconsistency in having strongly recommended in 1855 a work 
which in 1859 and after considerable expenditure it declares to be needless 
and objeotionable." 

* See Specification, clause (9), Chapter II. f See his letter, Chapter IV. 
X See G.O., No. 1068, dated 16th May 1869. 



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Amcm AND HEAD-W0BK8 SDTCB CONSTBUCTION. 77 

The idea of a bridge over the Anient was thus wisely laid to rest 
for ever, and till the oonstrnotion of the Bailway • bridge in 1893 
all the traffic had to oontinne to be carried across the river in boats 
when the water was passing over the orest of the Anient ; during the 
44 dry seasons " however, when water was below the crest, the Anient 
itself was, and is, used as a roadway, its stonework being at such times 
protected by a thick covering of sand. 

Within a very few years of the completion of the Anient it became 

evident that it was not high enough, with reference 
Anient not high ^ ^ j eye j Q j ^ 8 qj 8 q | ^ jj eft( j s \ ia { QeQ j^d the 

•nongh* 

" Main " Canals from them, to secure ty the delta 

a sufficient supply of water when the season of floods was past and the 
river stood but little above the orest of the work. To meet this diffi- 
culty it became the oustom at the close of each flood season to raise on 
the orest of the Anient a rough stone wall 4 feet high and 6 feet broad ; 
this was removed before the first freshes and the stone of which it 
was constructed was used in repairs of the apron or added to the " talus." 
This arrangement remained in force till 1891 ; the wall could not be 
put up till the river had fallen to but little over the anient and then 
it took considerable time to bring the stone in boats and place it in 
position ; also even when completed there was of oourse great leakage 
through it, so that at a oritical time of year for the wet crops, there was 
a sad waste of much needed water. At last the wet cultivation dependent 
Baiting Aniont by l on *^ e ^ n i° u * bad *° increased that it became 
foot wUd, with grooved evident that a more efficient arrangement was 
ports to take planks. nvoe 8sary and in 1890 the then Chief Engineer for 
Irrigation (Mr. Waloh) wrote as follows in his Inspection Notes for 
January 1890 : — 

41 The usual rough stone dam has been placed on the crest of the anient 
to keep water as high as possible after the season of freshes, but of course 
it leaks much. It has long been recognised that as cultivation extended, 
it would be necessary to retain the water, in the season when there are no 
floods, at a higher level than is now possible. It is not advisable to per- 
manently raise the orest by much, which would not only subject the work 
to more violent action but would also raise the level of the river above the 
work during floods and necessitate raising and strengthening embankments 
and head-works. Falling shutters which would remain on'the work are not 
considered suitable, but I think that an adaptation of the system which, 
though somewhat rough, has been found perfectly efficient at the GhSddvari 

• With footway over top booms. 



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78 KI8TNA DELTA ENGHNBEBING HI8T0BT. 

anient may answer here. I propose to raise the anient withont disturbing 
the existing crest, by plaoing on it concrete one foot in depth (edged with 
rnbble walls) in whioh will be embedded grooved oast-iron posts 2 feet 3 
inohes high, like those in nse at Dowlaishweram, between whioh planks 
oan be placed when necessary. The one foot of raising and the oast-iron 
posts will not raise the flood level very appreciably, and it would be only 
the concrete cap that would be at all disturbed if posts were knocked out by 
floating bodies, which is not likely to be more often the case than in the 
Godavari, as it is not till the freshes have risen considerably above the level 
of the top of the posts that drift of any size or in any quantities comes down. 
I have given the necessary instructions for at once trying the system on a 
short length of the anient and the trial will show if there is a fair prospect 
of success and will furnish data from which an estimate could be prepared." 

In the following season the arrangements thus proposed were fully 
oarried out. They answered well and in his Inspection Notes of March 
1893 the then Acting Chief Engineer for Irrigation (Colonel E. E. E. 
Drake-Brockman, E.E.) reported thus : " The raising of the Anient 
and the insertion of iron posts and planks has had a very beneficial 
eflect in maintaining a full supply in the canals this season, whioh 
however was a very favourable one. The maximum flood (of 1892) 
rose to 16 feet on the crest. The lower aprons have suffered no 
abnormal displacement." 

In the following year (1894) however it was decided to "raise* 
the crest of the Aniout by a continuous wall of 
HS^SHS^i masonry to the level of the top of the existing 
building up a further 8 shutters," and the work was at once oarried out. 
feet solid. The ^^t waB thus raised to 3 feet above its 

original height, and the apron immediately in rear of the body wall, 
instead of being flush, or nearly flush, with the crest became 3 feet below 
it. No provision was made for so strengthening the surface of the 
apron as to fit it to stand the overfall whioh would thus be brought 
on to it at certain stages of the river, and no extension of the talus was 
carried out. The result was almost a foregone conclusion and deserves 

. * „ the careful notice of those who may be called on 
Damage to Aprons . _ 

and talus of Anient in to deal with raising existing weirs. On the 

1W* subsidence of the floods of 1894, in whioh year the 

raising had been oarried out, the Superintending Engineer had to report 

as follows : — 



• Note by the Chief Engineer for Irrigation, with Proceedings of Madras Govern- 
ment No. 880 I., dated 11th April 1894. 



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ANICUT AND HEAD-WORKS SINCE CON8TEUCTION. 79 

" I hare the honour to inform you that the apron of the Kistna anient 
has been seriously damaged during the last few months. The scours were 
noticed when the first heavy freshes came down the river in July last, and 
their position was located as far as possible by observations from the bank. 

" 2. The approximate dimensions of the holes have now been ascertained 
and plotted and an estimate is under preparation for the necessary repairs. 
The two largest holes are respectively 750 and 250 feet long, 20 feet wide 
and about 12 feet average depth. There is also a very deep scour hole 
below the under sluices on the Bezwada side, but not in a position to cause 
damage to the under sluices. The anient body wall has also cracked in one 
place, but at present it is impossible to say whether this is due to settlement 

or not. 

* * # * 

"4. It has been found that the retaining walls, some paralled and some at 
right angles to the axis of the anient, have stood well, and the first work I 
propose to carry out is to build a retaining wall parallel to the anient and 
about 20 feet from the crest along those portions which have suffered most 
severely for want of such additional protection. 

"5. The scours are due to the height of the crest above the apron, viz., 
3 feet, and I propose, if time permits, to try the experiment of putting in 
one or two steps to reduce the present heavy fall on to the apron. It will, 
however, be very difficult to get the anient put into proper order before 
next season and there may not be time to carry out more than a short 
length of these steps. 

" 6. The scour hole below the under sluices is due to the training bank 
of the railway bridge, but as it is on the site of one of the bathing ghats to 
be built this year, I hope that when once we have repaired the damage and 
built the steps, the scour will be removed into the bed of the river and that 
there will be no serious damage in future years. 

"7.1 hope there will be no delay in obtaining funds, as, if not thoroughly 
repaired this year, the anient will certainly be breached some time next 
year." 

And in the Administration Eeport for 1894-95, the following 
appears :— 

"Very extensive special repairs to the Kistna anicut were rendered 
necessary by the formation, during the 1 894 irrigation season, of deep holes 
in the apron just below the crest, and in the river bed below the apron. 
These latter holes were filled in with Band. The scours of the stone apron 
immediately below the crest were very extensive, extending for an 
aggregate length of 1,320 feet and being of average section 20 x 12. 
The maximum depth of any scour hole waB 18 feet below crest of anicut or 
5 feet above the bottom of the foundation of the body wall. The apron was 
repaired with rough stone packing surfaced rubble masonry 2 feet thick. 



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80 KI8TNA DELTA ENGINEEEINa HlffTOEY. 

In addition, a longitudinal retaining wall 20 feet from the crest and 4} feet 
thick was built at the site of scour holes with cross or binding walls either 
of piles orj masonry at 20 and 30 feet intervals .... The fact that 
injury to the Anient apron had occurred was first noticed on the 16th July 
1894 when the water, was rising for the first and greatest * flood of the 
year." 

These repairs proved sufficient for the following year when there was 
no considerable flood in the river, the highest having been only 12) feet 
over the new crest. 

But the floods of 1896, which were exceptionally high, rising to 
l'-26 above any previous record,! again proved the 

•trtou* toLIT *** dan & er of ike ^teratioii made to the body-wall of 
the Anient without sufficiently strengthening the 
apron and without adding considerably to the talus ; the work was again 
seriously damaged and alarming holes formed in the bed of the river 
below it. 

The Superintending Engineer (Major W. L. C. Baddeley, E.E.) 

Damage thought to was of op^ 011 ttat *J far *h* greater part of the 
be due to Bailway damage was due to the Eailway works below the 
Bridge * Anient, but to this the Eailway Engineers strongly 

demurred, and a discussion ensued which is of such general Engineering 
interest, as well as of such importance in the history of the anient, that 
considerable extracts will be given from the various reports, &c., on the 
subject. For a clear comprehension of them it is necessary however to 
first describe the positions of the Eailway works with reference to the 
Anient, and to state the considerations which governed their location. 
When, in 1890, it was decided to build a bridge for the East Coast 

Considerations which Railway over the Kistna at Bezwada, the site 
governed sito and siie of selected after careful consideration was 2,400 feet 
Bailway B go. below the Anicut, this being as far down the river 

as was possible without forcing the Eailway line into difficulties with 
the three Canals into which the Eastern Delta Main Canal branches 
at about 3,300 feet from its head. The Engineer-in-Chief of the 
bridge (F. J. E. Spring, Esq., c.i.e.) decided on spans of 300 feet and 
wanted to have only ten of them, but " in deference + to the wishes 



# Only 14*5 feet above new crest, a very moderate flood. 

t In July 1882 the river rose to + 6629, in August 1896 to + 67*55, but in the 
latter year the Anicut had been raised 3 feet, so that the depth actually passing 1 over 
the crest was 1**74 greater in 1882 than in 1896. 

X Mr. Spring's paper in " Engineering," July 3rd, 1896« 



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ANICUT AND HEAD-WOBKS SINCE CONSTBUCTION. 81 

of the irrigation authorities 12 spans were ordered by 

Government to bo adopted " and the length of the bridge is practically 
the same as that of the anicut. The river, whioh is much narrowed at 
the gorge where the anicut is built, widens out immediately below it and 
was at the site of the bridge 4,920 feet broad, so that about 1,250 feet 
had to be closed by embankments blocking up some 18,000 out of 136,000 
square feet through whioh a high flood before discharged. At first it 
was proposed to place the bridge symmetrically with the anicut, so that 
the centres of the two works would be opposite one another. This 
however would have necessitated the closing of much of the permanent 
deepest channel of the river which there ran near the right, or southern, 
bank, and the Engineer-in-Chief considered that it would be better 
to bridge the natural main channel than to close, or partially close, it, 
because " if a new deep channel should form and extending back to the 
rear apron of the anicut should find itself opposite a place where in the 
old days the river was shallow and the anicut consequently correspond- 
ingly weak, the consequences might be disastrous not only for the great 
irrigation interests, but for the bridge itself." The then Chief Engineer 
for Irrigation (Mr. Gh T. Walch) agreed with this view and approved 
the newly suggested site for the bridge, which is shown on the " sketch " 
facing next page. As in the new position the training bank to the right 
abutment of the bridge was so retired as to hug the margin of the river, 
the other training bank had to be correspondingly advanced ; the portion 
of the river bed blocked by this arrangement was between 18 and 19 feet 
above the low water level,* and therefore it was only in considerable 
floods that any water passed over it, and then with, of course, a less 
mean velooity than at the deeper parts of the river. The training bank 
was arranged with " easy curves tangential to the down stream masonry 
works of the north flank of the anicut " and it was thought that this 
would not result in any serious aggravation of thp " swirl " which always 
occurred beltw the mnder-sluices when open whilst water was at the same 
time passing over the anient. The training bank was constructed in the 
working season of 1892 and the bridge was opened for traffio in 1893. 

Eeturning now to the discussion of the causes of the damage to the 
anient, the following extracts are given from the 



Difonstion of cautes 

dated 13th August 1896, written immediately after 



Superintending Engineer's report, No. 1244-K., 



• See '• Seotion," opposite page 84. 



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82 K1STNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTOBY. 

the high flood of 1896 and printed with Proceedings of Madras Govern- 
ment No. 789-1., dated 29th September 1896 :— 

" 9. The surrey I attach to this letter shows how very much the river has 

The Superintending been contracted by the bridge and north training 

Engineer's views on bank, and when it is considered that the bulk of the 

the subject water paflses through the nine 8pan8 commenoing 

from the northern side, the reason for the heavy scouring action that now 
is going on below the apron, near the Bezwada under-sluices, is not far to 
seek. The bridge has twelve spans, — the spans 1, 2, 3 commencing from 
the right bank, do comparatively little work ; 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 pass the bulk 
of the water ; 9, 10, 11 and 12 do more than 1, 2 and 3, but much less than 
the centre spans. 

"10. It is an axiom for the proper situation of an anient that there shall 
be the freest possible escape for the water in rear ; but what is the case at 
Bezwada ? The original spread of the river has been throttled by the bridge 
and training bank, and during the flood the velocity of the water passing 
through the centre spans of the bridge was so great that, looking down upon 
it from the bridge, the effect was not that of water passing rapidly under a 
bridge, but more like the effect observed when water is discharged through 
an under-sluice. 

" The effect of this contraction is to produce baok currents and whirlpools, 
which last year scoured out a hole 50 feet deep in the place referred to, and 
this scour hole will have increased this year, for, during the flood, the back 
currents and disturbance near the under-sluices were most marked. 

" As a proof of the evil effect produced by the bridge and training bank, 
I may observe that, since the construction of the bridge, a shoal of sand has 
been steadily increasing in size close to the north protection bund. 

" 11 . I must also point out that if the scour I allude to works back and 
takes down the under-sluices, it may cause a breach into the canal, which 
disaster would be equivalent to the failure of head works, and the con- 
sequences would be most serious as the Eastern delta system would be 
destroyed. 

"12. It appears to me from an examination of the survey that the water 
passing over the anient, which is 3,700 feet average length during floods, 
passes into a basin which is contracted at its mouth by the fact that the centre 
spans of the bridge pass the bulk of the water. How far this tends to raise 
the level of the water above the anicut I cannot say, but about the back 
currents and disturbance and consequent danger it causes to the anient, there 
is not a shadow of a doubt in my mind. I may remark that this is no new 
theory of mine. I have considered the protection bund a danger to the 
anient ever since I have been in charge of the circle, and the state of the 
river below the anicut on the Bezwada side during the flood was such as to 
convince me that the interests of the anicut demand a freer escape of water 



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!**X\ 



SKETC 

which accompanied Letter 
from Superintending Er 
Scale 800 Feel 



\Y\\Y N 

=±=± - ^ 

_APRON ± 

TALUS 



V\\\l 






V 



\\m 



6ITANAQARAM VILLAGE 






Railway bridge 



/ • 






Reg : No. 4105 
Copies 410 



NOU — During tho floods in Au K u«t 1996. Spans Nci. I. 2. 3. passed vory little water, spans |Mos 
2. ft 3 and less than spans r >, 6 7. 8. The set of tho river abjvn the .micut was a; a nghi 
did their full amount of woik, the water In rfjr of the .imc> t would not have the fr--c disc t 
• lulC«S) It obstructed by the t mining bank. The arrows denote tho direct Ion of the cur re 
of the Under Sluice was very great, and there was a sMnding wave. Tho appearanceof ! 
the river by the bridge and trilnlng bank. 



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SKETCH 

ed Letter 1244.13th. August 18©e 

tenaing Engineer 2nd. Circle, 
e 800 Feet = r . nah 



Kigtna t*lU XnginMiinff Hi-tory 




, fjcs *•«.*. i»pa)i\l rig most of the water, spam Noi 0, Id, II Si. 18 passed more than 1. 
t ', r -"vl«to tn« Anicut «nd not a«b«fore towards Sttsnagaram. Even if all th*» spans 
^ , : -i'r«a«*irat>l« as it is the water passing over snJ under tho unlrcul (by the under 
r v-: *• observed during tho flood. The disturbance over and in tho neighbourhood 
\ : . iMfftMT during floods, polnttto serious michief going on, daeto the contraction of 

(S.gned) W. L. C. Baddsley 
13th August 189S. 



Photo-Print Survey Office. Madras. 
1898 



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ANtCUT AND HEAD-WOfiKS SINCE CONSTRUCTION. 83 

in rear of it. The matter, in my opinion, is one that must be decided chiefly 
from the point of view of the responsible Irrigation officers. To allow the 
bridge to continue in its present state is to court disaster to the Eastern delta 
system. I must also state my earnest conviction that the danger is one 
that will increase every year so long as the bridge is allowed to remain 
as it is." 

Government at once referred this to its Consulting Engineer for 

Mr. TTpcott't views. Eailwa 5 8 ( F - E - XJpoott, Esq.), who visited the 
place and oombated the idea that the railway works 
were responsible for what had happened, asserting that the inorease in 
" the eddies and whirlpools at the junction of the anicut and under-sluice " 
was solely due to the recent raising of the anicut ; this was also the view 
taken by Mr. Spring, who had now become Consulting Engineer to the 
Q-overnment of India for Eailways, Assam, who wrote a Ibng and 
interesting note on the subject, dated 5th December 1896. 

He begins by pointing out that not the contraction of the breadth, 

but of the area of the riveriis the " true factor of 
Mr. Spring's Note. 

the matter at issue ;" that the bed under considera- 
tion being of erodible sand, " just ready to move with each instantaneous 
acceleration of velocity," the contraction of the breadth does not necessi- 
tate the reduction of area ; that an extra depth * of 5 feet under the 
whole length of the bridge would provide a sectional area equal to that 
of the highest known flood before the construction of the work, and that, 
as a matter of fact, " as soon as the first moderate flood occurred after 
contraction, " the deepening had been " equivalent to an extra 7,600 
square feet of area of discharge channel, or to an extra depth right 
across the bridge of over 2 feet." 

He then goes on to deal with the question of the "swirl" or 
" whirlpool " near the Bezwada under-sluices, asserting that "it has 
nothing whatever to do " with the bridge training works, this assertion 
being based on his personal experience of the swirl before construction of 
those works and on the fact that records show that it had been a frequent 
cause of trouble. 

After consideration of the action of " swirls " and the best way of 
dealing with the holes caused by them he goes onlto say : — 

^The flood level of 1896 was about a foot higher than that of the highest 
previously known, viz., that of 1882. This would appear to show that there 



* " I blocked up 18,000 square feet sectional area between river bed and high water 
level, leaving 118,000 equare feet to carry the flood discharge which had heretofore 
passed through 136,000 square feet."— FJ.B.S. 



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64 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEEEINQ HISTORY. 

is nothing exceptionally formidable in the flood of 1896 as compared with 
that of 1882, not mnch more indeed than can be acconnted for by the addi- 
tion of three feet to Anient oreet ; and that, if on the subsidence of the floods 
it js fonnd on measurement that the pot holes below the Anient are larger 
and deeper than usual, some special cause for this result must be searched 
for. It seems to me that for such a cause we need not go further than the 
fact of the crest haying been raised three feet, for it stands to reason that 
there must be very much greater erosive action at the tail of a rapid with a 
mean slope of 17 feet vertical in 2$0 horizontal than at the tail of a rapid 
with a mean slope of 14 feet vertical to 250 horizontal. The scouring action 
of the swirl under the extra foot of head through the sluices would also 
naturally be greater than had before been experienced." 

Passing then to the form given to his training bank he says : — 
"14. A swirl or whirlpool is the result of a current sweeping straight 
past a lump of dead water, or a comparatively slowly moving body of water, 
just as a peg top is caused to revolve by the acceleration due to the succes- 
sive lashes of a boy's whip. Such a piece of dead water is created whenever 
a spur is projected out into a current. Should the spur on plan be more or 
less at right angles to the current there will be two such blocks of dead 
water, both of which will become swirls. When on the other hand the spur 
is at a comparatively acute angle to the direction of the ourrent, tailing 
down-streamwards as usually constructed, there will be only one such lump 
of dead water, viz., that at the downstream side. This dead water will 
gradually acquire a velocity which may easily become sufficient to lift the 
material of the bed, and fling it out centrifugal wise to be carried away by 
the stream current. The result of the old fashioned system of keeping 
rivers within bounds by the use of spurs has over and over again proved 
disastrous, the holes which are caused by the resulting swirls being most 
voracious, eating up the heads of the spurs and continually necessitating 
repairs thereto. This will I think be testified to by the present Superin- 
tending Engineer of the Orissa Irrigation Circle.* But if, instead of 
protecting a natural or, as in the case of the Kistna north training bank, an 
artificial, bank by projecting a series of spurs out from it, the same material 
be applied in the form of a surface slope protection and an apron, along 
a straight or carefully curved river bank, the current will flow past smoothly 
and no swirl will be created. 

"15. It was for this reason that I so carefully curved the north training 
bank of the Kistna, leading it by easy curves tangential to the down stream 
masonry works of the north flank of the Anicut, in order that there might 
at least be nothing, in the form of the training bank on plan, which could 

• And see page 50 of " Engineering Works, Gddavari Delta."— G.T.W. 



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KISTNA RIVER AT BEZWi 

SECTION AT SITE OF RAILWAY BRI 
Scales. Hor: 500 Feet Vert: 50 Feet- 1 ln< 



SOUTHIRIGHT'BANK 




BOTTOM'OF WELLS-50' 00 (DATUM. MEAN SEA LEvEUAPPRO 



Reg: No 4452 
Copies 410 




SURFAC E VELOCITY CURVE 4 B . 91 FLOOD L EVEL, _6» iOO_ 

Do. n 3.991 FLOOD LEVEL 51 OO 



Do. 2.991 FLOOD LEVEL 4 5 00^, 



CURVES OF OBSERVED VELOCITIES BEFORE RIVER WAS CON" 



SCALE 1 INCH VERTICAL- 1C FEET PER SECOND 



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EZWADA. 

*Y RRIDHF 
et -l Irch 



^•BO" 



Kistaa Delta BaglnMriaff History VoL I 



GIRDER TOP 107- 50 




. ---•■'rT- 

I 

0^ IN m ft ANOTHER 2 FEET IN 1894 







C ° * FA +30 TOP 



L A PPP0XIMATE7 



girded BOTTOM 77-co 

PIER TOP 73-25 



-PART OF RIVER CLOSED IN 1892 - 



-H50 



+30 TOP OF WELLS 



AKS A A.* A. ARE DUE TO PROTECTIVE LOOSE R IBBLE PLACEO AROUND ALL PIER S 



Note. —Cross sectional area between bed 
and fiood level of + 65 ' 80 

(a) Before Contraction 136.000 Scj ft 

(b) After Contraction when! j 265 oo 

ecour had occurred] ' ** ** 

(c> ., „ ,. before * „ ,. JiS.OOO „ M 
(d> *re» of ecour (b-c) B.SOO „ . 

(•) Breadth of bed erodablei ] qoo |jn ft. 

unpltched with stone f ' 

(f) Mean depth of ecour ill) 4.5 ri. 
over td+-e) J 



( Signed). F. J; E. SPRfNO 

M. INST.C. B. 

11-3-98 



51-00 




Photo-Print., Survey Office, Madrae. 
(898 



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ANICUT AND HEAD-WORKS SINCE CONSTRUCTION. 85 

lend colour to any suspicion that the existing swirl, which was due to the 
strong current of the under-sluices, had been in any way aggravated." 

As regards the question of the raising of flood levels by the bridge 
and its training banks, he says that " had the narrowing actually caused 
a backing up or afflux, the efEeot of such backing up would have been 
actually beneficial instead of injurious to the anicut as slightly dimi- 
nishing the height of the over-fall," but that, as a matter of fact, no such 
backing up was caused, for — 

" Were this the case there would be an afflux at the bridge, that is the 
general level of the area of water above bridge would be something 
distinctly higher than the general level of area of water below the bridge. 
Were there any such condition as this the difference of level would be some- 
thing quite appreciable, and there would be such a local increase of velocity 
through the bridge as would, in a very few hours or minutes, lift the sand 
at the bottom and scour out such an extra depth all across as to speedily 
abolish the afflux, the bed not being of rock. Large photographs taken at 
or close to the top of the flood show that there was no such afflux. There 
was certainly a wave, perhaps 20 inches high, at each pier ; but this wave 
is only the same sort of wave that is formed on the sides of a ship moving 
through the open sea, caused by surface or skin friction. A barge 14 feet 
broad, with a semi-circular bow and stern, forced at a velocity of 10 feet per 
second through the open ooean would have precisely such a wave on her 
sides as was seen by Mr. Upcott and by Mr. Eaglesome on the Kistna Bridge 
piers, especially if the skin of the boat were as rough as that of the pier 
masonry. But such a wave is a merely local effect and is a very different 
thing from an afflux." 

Just before this " note " was written, the Chief Engineer for Irriga- 
tion, Madras (W. Hughes, Esq.) had decided that 
Mr. Hughes' views. . ... 

it had been " unwise to raise the anicut above the 

level fixed in 1891 and that it should be lowered to that level before 
next freshes, and self-acting shutters fixed as soon as possible," and this 
was also the decision come to by the Inspector-General of Irrigation who 
Views of the In- ^ad keen sen * ^y ^ e Government of India to advise 
spector.Oeneral of them on the matter. Extracts from his summing 
Irrigation, U p an( j <}j 8 p 08a i f the case are given below. It 

will be seen that he held the scales evenly between the Engineers who 
attributed to the bridge all, or nearly all, the mischief that bad occurred, 
and those who went to the opposite extreme and pooh-poohed the idea 
that the " back swirl " near the Bezwada " Under-sluices " had in any 
way been affected by the training bank, though the Superintending 
Engineer and other competent officers had, from actual observation during 
the flood, been convinced that this was the case. 



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66 KiSTNA DlELTA ENGtNEEfclNG mffTOfcY. 

His " note " commences with a consideration of the levels of the 
high floods of 1882 and 1896, on which his opinion is that, though the 
126 foot greater rise in the latter year " may be partly due to a fuller 
discharge, it must be attributed mainly to the fact that the crest of the 
anicut has been lately raised 3 feet which probably accounts for at least 
1 foot of the increased afflux," and he goes on to say " There is a sheer 
drop of 3 feet on to the anicut talus * which has been neither strength* 
ened nor lengthened to resist this heavy action." 

He then deals at length with the conflict of opinion between the 
Irrigation and Eailway Engineers as to the effect of the railway works 
on the anicut and the necessity for lengthening the bridge, and the 
following is a r6sum6 of his views on this subject and his decision on 
the whole matter given in his own words : — 

(< Iam therefore of opinion that any increase in the height of flood levels 
above the anicut, as compared with those of 1882, that was not due to an 
increase in the volume of the flood discharge, must be attributed entirely to 
the raising of the anicut crest, and was wholly independent of any obstruc- 
tion caused by the bridge works. 

" If this be admitted, the extent to which silt may have been deposited in 
any of the spans of the bridge or below the apron near the Bezwada under- 
sluioes is immaterial. The only effect of increasing the number of spans 
would be either to increase these deposits of silt or to decrease the depth of 
scour in those spans on which the set of a flood may be heaviest. It has 
not, however, been stated that the maximum scour at the bridge was greater 
than was contemplated when the bridge was designed, nor is the safety of 
the bridge now in question. As regards the effect of the bridge on the flood 
levels immediately below and above the anicut, I have no hesitation in 
expressing an opinion that the water-way at present provided is sufficient. 
. . . I see no reason for doubting the assertion of the very competent 
observers on the spot that, over and above these ordinary eddies, a great 
back-swirl was set up by the obstruction caused by the left embankment which 
might, if continued loog enough, or if frequently repeated, endanger the 
safety of the left end of the anicut and under-sluices. The existence of such 
a swirl is clearly indicated by the levels, which show that the water on left 
bank below anicut stood 13 foot higher than on right bank. There is of 
course nothing extraordinary in the level on one bank of a river being slightly 
higher or lower than that on the other during a high flood, according to the 
position and volumes of the main currents, but in this case the levels 
upstream of the anicut were identical (in 1882 there was a difference of 066 
foot) bo that the discharge was as nearly as possible eveoly distributed over 
- - - 

* " Apron. "— G.T.W. 



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ANICUT AND HBAD-WOBXfl SINCE CON8TBUCTION. 87 

the whole length of the anicut. The great difference in the levels immedi- 
ately downstream shows, however, how the water must have piled up above 
the left embankment, and is a measure of the violent eddies and swirls which 
must have occurred between the anicut and bridge. The remedy proposed bj 
the Superintending Engineer, to remove the embankment and lengthen the 
bridge on the north end by three spans would, no doubt, reduce this action, 
but it is my opinion only on this account, «nd not because the water-way at 
the bridge is in itself insufficient, that the lengthening of the bridge can be 
recommended. The same object might be almost as effectively attained by 
removing two or three spans from the south, and adding them to the north 
end, though this would be open to obvious objections on other grounds. 

" 10. There is little doubt that this left embankment tends to set in motion 
new forces during the flood season which must be reckoned with by those 
responsible for the safety of the canal head works, but the question is 
whether the difficulties cannot be met by some leps heroic and expensive 
measure than that of lengthening the bridge by three spans, which would 

probably cost something between 7 and 8 lakhs of rupees. 

* * * * 

" Although the downstream eddies no doubt tend to produce the scour- 
holes below the anient, the severe action on the weir itself, due to the 
raising of the crest already referred to has probably been a far more impor- 
tant factor, and until this has been eliminated by cutting down the crest 
it cannot be said to what extent the action is due to the bridge training 

works." 

# * * * 

" My general conclusion therefore is that there has been no contraction 
of the water-way at the Bezwada bridge suoh as would affect appreciably 
the levels above the aniout. By lengthening the bridge the violent action 
which now occurs below the left end of the anicut would probably be 
materially reduced, but there is no evidence that this action has hitherto 
oaused any serious damage, though it may do so in time and must undoubt- 
edly be guarded against. I consider, however, that the safety of the anient 
and under-sluioes will be far more securely assured by outting down the 
upper 2 feet of the present crest and strengthening the works in the manner 
proposed in paragraph 10 above than by lengthening the railway bridge, 
and this at less than one-tenth the cost, but the left training embankment 
should be made secure against over-topping by the highest flood and against 
the violent action that takes place along its water faoe." 

Mr. Higham also recommended — 

(a) Provision of falling shutters on the lowered crest of the anient. 

(b) Extension of the down-stream aprons. 

0) Raising and strengthening the left training bank above the 
bridge. 



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86 KISTKA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTOBY. 

(d) The completion of the ancillary head sluice Western Delta (see 

page 90). 
(0) The construction for the Bezwada Main Canal (Eastern Delta) of 

a lower or seoond Regulator of three 40 feet sluices (see page 89). 

In reviewing Mr. Higham's "Note" the Government of India 
after noticing " with satisfaction the approval recorded of the good 
work done by Major Baddeley and his officers and subordinates during 
the recent floods " concurred — 

"in the opinion that it is unnecessary to lengthen the Bezwada 
bridge, and they accept the view of the Inspector-G-eneral, as expressed 
in paragraph 10 of his notes, that the raising of the crest of the anient 
has been a more important factor of the violent action that occurred 
below the anient, and is more likely to cause danger to the work, than 
the left upstream embankment of the bridge, and that they are of 
opinion that the upper 2 feet of the raised portion should be at once 
removed and replaced by falling shutters, and that the apron of the 
anient should be extended, as suggested in paragraph 10 of the notes. 

" As regards the left embankment upstream of the bridge, it should 
be maintained at the height and section that may be advised by the 
Irrigation officers. The Government* of India consider that the objec- 
tion to increasing the height of crest of the anient will apply with 
almost equal force to the GhSdavari anicut, and that, as proposed in 
paragraph 3 of the inspection notes, shutters should be substituted for 
the extra 2 feet of masonry which was provided for in the estimate 
sanctioned by the Government of India in Public Works Department 
letter, No. 4 I., dated the 13th January 1896." 

Before the freshes of 1897 the 2 feet of the 1894 raising were 
Removal of theS.feot remove( ^ an ^ 170 running feet of experimental 
•olid raiting of 1894 and falling shutters were fixed. These having proved 
■ubititntion of falling satisfactory, the remainder of the Anicut (except- 
ing 353 feet at the ends which were built up solid 
to level of top of the shutters) has, in 1898, been fitted with shutters of 
the same, or very similar, pattern, drawings of which will be found in 
Volume II (No. 6). These shatters fall automatically when the river 
rises to from 1£ feet to 1 J feet above their tops, and they are raised 
by hand when the river falls below 2 J feet over the masonry crest of the 
Anicut. 

The " Scoubing " on " Undeb " Sluices at either flank of the Ani- 
cut have not been appreciably altered since construction, except as regards 
their aprons which have been considerably extended and strengthened, 



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ANlCTJt AND HEAD-WORKS SINCE CONSTRUCTION. 89 

and as regards the ijieans of regulating the discharge through the sluices. 
These used to be merely baulks or " Needles," lifted by a lever engaging 
with pins run through holes in the baulks, and driven down by mauls ; 
these rough appliances have been superseded by gates worked by screw- 
gearing, those for the Bezwada sluices having been fitted in 1886 and 
those for the Sitanagaram sluices in 1891. (See Plan 8, Volume II.) 

The Sitanagaram Under-Sluices were " founded * partly on solid rook 
and partly on a mass of roughstone of great depth " placed in the deep 
scour channel which there existed, and the consequence was, of course, 
unequal settlement which for some time caused anxiety, but has ceased 
to do so for many years. 

The Head-Sluices. — These, like the " Under-Sluices," were origi- 
nally provided only with baulk or " Needle " shutters, but in 1879-80 
this rough and unsatisfactory arrangement was superseded, at both sets 
of sluices, by shutters with the screw- gearing, shown on Plan 10, 
Volume II, which not only render careful regulation possible, but 
enable water to be taken in at different levels when the river is high, 
so that as much sand and silt need not be swept into the canals as was 
the case when the water had always to be admitted from the bottom. 

The Bezwada Head-Sluices are subjected to alarming vibration 
due to the rush of water through the adjacent Under-Sluices when open, 
and the over-fall over them in high floods. At such times it has been 
customary to load the Head-Sluices with sand bags, and of this in the 
last floods the Superintending Engineer says " it distinctly reduced the 
shake and tremor in the sluice." 

The advantages of the ancillary Head-Sluice built at Sitanagaram 
(see below) were so apparent in the floods of 1896 that it was proposed to 
have a somewhat similar arrangement below these Head-Sluices. The 
site, however, is peculiar and cramped and the details of the work would 
have to be very different from those of the Sitanagaram Sluice ; would 
probably have to take the form of a Bridge of three or four spans 
across the canal, closed by gates of the " Stoney," or somewhat similar 
type. The matter is still under the consideration of the Inspector- 
General of Irrigation.! 

The SfTANAGABAM Head-Sluices had for years caused anxiety by 
cracks and signs of weakness, and in 1895 it was decided to build at 

* See paragraph 3 of Captain Orr's No. 251, dated 9th August 1855, printed at 
page 74. 

t It has been decided not to build an ancillary sluice, but to strengthen the existing 
work. 



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00 KJSTNA DELTA EKGINEEBING HISTORY. 

200 feet down the channel another set of sluioes- which would enable 
water to be held up between it and the old set and so lessen the strain 
on the latter in high floods, whilst the new work could take the place of 
the old one should that fail. The plan of this new work will be found 
in Volume II (No. 12). 

Fortunately its construction was so far advanced before the great 
flood of 1896 that it could be brought into operation to the extent of 
reducing the head on the old sluices by 3 feet, thus saving them from 
the destruction which otherwise would have been almost a certainty ; the 
new work has been finished in 1898. 

The Head-Locks remain as they were originally built except that 
their side walls and gates have been raised to meet the maximum 
floods now known. It has already been mentioned, in Chapter III, that 
these Locks have a width of chamber of only 16 feet, whilst all other 
Locks or important through lines of communication have a width of 20 
feet, and it seems not improbable that they will, before long, have to 
be altered, or in the case of the Sitanagaram Lock, rebuilt in a better 
position. 



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( 91 ) 



CHAPTER VI. 

W0BK8 IN THE DELTA— SANG TI0N8— EXECUTION— 

COST. 

It will be remembered (see Chapter II) that, exoepting two small 
sums for opening channels for a short distance 
pected ^ C08t !5| from the Head-sluioes, the estimate of Es. 7,66,541 
lakhs, sent in by the Committee provided only for the 

Anient and Head-works, but it was stated (see paragraph 15 of " Speci- 
fication") that probably six lakhs would have to be added for u Detail 
Irrigation works " and " seven lakhs more for embankments and roads." 
In sending on the project Government considered that in addition to 
the 7$ lakhs for the Anient and Head-works only " 8 lakhs would be 
required for detail irrigation works and embankments, making a grand 
total of 15$ lakhs " and it was this sum which the " Court of Directors " 
sanctioned " in the full assuranoe that the greatest oare has been taken 
to prevent future disappointment in respect to estimates both of cost and 
returns. ,, What, one wonders, would have been the feelings of the 
" Honourable Court" could it have foreseen that the 15} lakhs whioh 
then appeared so large a sum for the purpose to which it was to be 
devoted would be spent nine times over before the scheme then initiated 
could be said to be fairly developed. 

When first the works were started there was only a general and some- 

Anticipated require- w ^* vagP 10 idea as to what would be required in 
ments for delta worke, the delta to enable the Anicut-water to be utilized, 
****•• and it was not for many years, as will be shown, 

that any comprehensive scheme for the whole system was prepared. 
Meanwhile, estimates were submitted piece-meal for what from time to 
time appeared most immediately required, the first object being, as 
in the GKSd&vari, to get the water into the natural drainages and old 
channels and so in some way distributed quickly about the delta. 
Accordingly we find that the first estimates sanctioned were for making 
outs to, and improving to some extent, the " Pulllru " and " Budamlru " 
in the Eastern Delta, and the " Tungabhadra V in the Western Delta. 

The estimates sanctioned against the general provision of 8 lakhs for 
" Detail irrigation works and embankments " are given in the following 
statement: — 



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92 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEEBING HISTORY. 



Estimates. 



Amounts. 



oo 



Eastern Delta. 

''(I) Enlarging head of main feeder 
and cutting branch to Poolairoo. 

(2) Deepening and widening Boode- 

mair for 9 miles to Kesarapilly. 

(3) Deepening and widening Poolairoo 

from Pattamata to Weyoor, 17 
miles with Look and Weir. 

(4) Bridge over the Boodemair for 

road from Ellore to Bezwada 
and Masulipatam. 

Western Delta. 

(5) Enlarging Toongabhadra for about 

6 miles to Vadlapoodij bottom 
width 15 yards. 

(6) Widening, <fec, Toongabhadra from 

Yadlapoodi for another 6 miles 
to Doogiralla and from thence 
excavating a new channel viA 
Tenalli, Sandole, and Alloor to 
the Nizampatam creek, with 
3 sets of Looks and Weirs. 

Eastrrn Delta. 

(7) Canal from Weyoor (see (3) above) 

to tide-water in the Pooligedde 
branch of river near Mopedevy 
with 2 Locks and Weirs, Under 
tunnels, and 150 irrigation 
sluioes. 



(8) Diverting Boodemair for about 

3 miles and passing it under 
the Ellore Canal by an aque- 
duct. 

General. 

(9) Ten boats for conveyance of 

materials in connection with 
building the anient. 



(10) Besides the above there was 
sanctioned "a Channel from 
Bavendrapad to Vallabapuram 
in the Western Delta to take 
water from the Toongabhadra to 
a Channel already formed down 
west bank of Kistna." 

There "was also sanctioned in 1853 
for Biver embankment — Bezwada 
k to Ibrampatam. 



R8. 

68,462 
40,278 
87,852 

7,585 



56,460 



2,20,416 



1,49,797 



22,020 



14,301 



Remarks. 



Now "Main Canal" 

Now upper portion of Ellore 
Canal. 

Now upper portion of Masuli- 
patam Canal. 



Now "Main Canal." 



Now " Nizampatam Canal." 



Part of this now "Bank 
Canal." (The Earthwork of 
this partly carried out for 
about 16 miles to Nada- 
kudurru and then stopped, 
the unexpended balance 
being diverted to other 
works.) 

Excess of Be. 8,410 on this, 
reported in P.M.G., No. 836, 
4th May 1858. 



6,67,170 



14,332 



22,675 



Afterwards converted into 
the "Bank Canal." 

The earth from excavation of 
this Channel was obiefly 
used for the River embank- 
ment and appears not to 
have been charged to the 
Kistna system. 



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WORKS IN THE DELTA — SANCTIONS — EXECUTION — COST. 



93 



Towards the end of 1854, four more estimates were sent in, the 
amounts of which added to the Es. 6,67,170 shown above would have 
considerably exceeded the 8 lakhs sanctioned, and consequently the 
estimates had to be referred to the Court of Directors, who accorded 
sanction to them in its despatch, 16th September 1856. These estimates 
were as follows : — 



Estimates. 


Amounts. 


Remarks. 


(1) High Level Canal from the Boodemair 


BS. 

79,550 


1 


at Kesarapilly (see No. (2) of state- 




Now the '< EUore Canal." 


ment above) to Perikeed at 17# miles. 




1 (The portion between 


(2) High Level Canal from Perikeed to Den- 


1,34,834 


y Dendalur and EUore is 


dahir (about 4 miles beyond EUore) 




now considered to belong 
1 to the Qddtvari system.) 


to there join the "EUore" Canal 




from the Gtfdavari. 




J 


(8) Extending canal from Weyoor (see No. 


2,87,106 


Now the " Matulipatain 


(3) of statement above) to Masali- 




Canal." The size of the 


patam with 4 sets of Locks 105' x 16' 




Looks was altered to 


and Weirs. 




150' x 20'(seeP.M.G.,30th 
September 1857). The 
total amount was increas- 
ed to Rs. 2,53,294 in 
P.M.G., No. 712, 4th April 
1860. 


(4) Canal from Vadlapoodi (see No. (6) of 


1,46,787 


This line proved to have 


statement above) for 20 miles to 




been badly chosen and after 


Inganapadi to eventually form por- 




considerable expenditure 


tion of Bast Coast Canal. 




was abandoned in favour of 
the line now taken by the 
14 Com mam 6r Canal." 



Stoppage of works oa 
aeeount of the Mutiny. 



The work on these estimates had soaroely been set thoroughly going 
when it had to be stopped in accordance with the 
restrictive orders * issued in June 1857 on account 
of the Mutiny. The great importance of one of 
the works from a Military point of view however soon became apparent, 
for early in November, during the North-East Monsoon rains, " Her 
Majesty's Royal Regiment of Foot " which had been hurried out from 
England at " 3 days' notice " landed at Masulipatam with orders to 
push on at once to Hyderabad, and would have been able to do so had 



• Resolution of the Government of India, 27th June 1857: "Having regard to 
the financial position of the Government, the Right Honourable the Governor- General in 
Council oonsiders it expedient, that all Pnblio Works of every description, except works 
in the Military Department, and inexpensive works of a very urgent nature, should 
forthwith be stopped at all the Presidencies, and that establishments of the Public 
Works Department should, without delay, be reduced to be lowest possible soale." 



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94 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

the Masulipatam Canal been finished ; but it was open for naviga- 
tion for only 24 miles from Bezwada, as far as Viranki, and for upwards 
of three weeks the regiment could not get over the 15 miles between 
Masulipatam and that place, the so-called road being a mere unmetalled 
track over soil which the Executive Engineer stated " becomes of the 
consistency of paste after heavy rain, and useless as a means of commu- 
nication." 

The Military, as well as the Civil, authorities therefore so strongly 

urged the necessity of completing the Canal as 

Completion of Hanoi- quickly as possible, that after considerable pressure, 

•auctioned! 1 * * *be Government of India allowed the work to be 

gone on with. 

With this exception the Kistna Delta works were practically at a 
standstill for nearly 3 years. Between then and the sanction in 1864 
of " Major Anderson's scheme " (to be dealt with further on) the sanctions 
for works to be actually carried out cannot be traced with certainty, as 
there then obtained a system by which "sanction once having been 
given for any work, the funds so obtained were available at the discretion 
of the local Government for any other sanctioned work," and works 
were frequently stopped or given up altogether to provide funds for 
other works which seemed more important, in a perfectly bewildering 
fashion. The following however seem to have been the chief works 
sanctioned for execution between 1858 and 1864 excluding such as appear 
again in, or were afterwards treated as sanctioned against, "Major 
Anderson's scheme " (see page 98) : — 

as. 
1868. Look and Calingnlah to Budam6ru near Kesara- 

pilly. Ellore Canal 13,660 

„ Draining oonntry west of Commamtir Channel 
by diverting, &c, Nallamada ; and Tunnels 

under the Channel . . 38,100 

,, Calingnlah with sluices aoross the Tonga- 

bhadra at head of Commamtir Channel . . 2,800 

1859. Additional Lock and Weir at Intur. Nizam- 

patam Canal 34,600 

1860. For Channel — afterwards incorporated in 

Byves' Canal 43,400 

1 861. Extra for above and Channels from it . . 21,460 

1862. Extension|of the Commamtir Channel for irriga- 

tion 21,580 



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WORKS IN THE DELTA — SAHCTIONS — EXECUTION — COST. 96 

AS. 

1862. Lock and Weir at Pamarra ; new canal from 

7$ miles below Pamarra to Bantumilly Salt- 
kotare (now Bantumilly Canal) ; improving 
the Polraz-Kodu Channel ; two new channels 
from the Ptilleru 95,710 

1863. Constructing an additional Lock, Nizampatam 

Canal 15,965 

,, Two calingnlahs and inlets and outlets, Ellore 

Canal • 14,580 

In 1861 Captain Chambers made a report * on 
report; ** *^e ^^ °* *^e wor ^ 8 > which may be condensed as 

follows : — 

On the Eastern Side op the Biver. 

The Main Canal (51 chains long) excavated with a bottom width of 
about 90 feet. 

The Ellore High-level Canal. — Earthwork almost finished to Peri- 
keed (at 26 miles) ; of a section much smaller than afterwards adopted ; 
the masonry works which had been built on this canal were ; bridge 
60 feet span over it near its head ; aqueduct 48 feet wide of 8 arches 
of 10 feet span by which the Budameru after 3 miles diversion 
was passed under the canal ; Lock (2nd class) at Ke'sarapilly (11 J miles) 
into the Budam6ru, along the winding course of which boats could 
struggle at certain times of the year to and from the Colair Lake and 
the G-6davari system of Canals ; Weir, near the Lock, discharging into 
the Budameru the water for navigation, and for the irrigation amount- 
ing to 20,000 acres ; as there were not in that stream any means of 
holding up the water in reaches, far more had to be sent into it than the 
irrigation really needed and the result was extensive swamping of the 
Grudivada taluk. To remedy this state of affairs to some extent a large 
artificial distributary, known as " Byves' Channel," taking off from the 
canal just above the Weir and designed to carry 60,000 cubic yards of 
water per hour was under excavation. 

The Matulipatam Canal } the prosecution of which, as already explained, 
was allowed to be gone on with, was, as regard its earthwork nearly 
completed, but was navigable only to end of its fourth reach at Akamarru 

• With Proceedings of Madras Government, No. 1076, dated 11th Jane 1861. 



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86 KI8T1U DELTA ENGINEEHING HISTORY. 

(43 miles from Bezwada and 6 miles short of Masulipatam), because the 
Look and Weir there were not finished. The area irrigated under this 
canal was 19,000 acres. Just above the first lock at Kankipad (12J 
miles) a sluice of six vents 4' X 5' had been built, by which 40,000 cubic 
yards of water per hour could be sent into the " Pull^ru," and by it 
31,000 acres were irrigated. 

The total area irrigated in the Eastern delta was thus 70,000 acres, 
of which 51,000 received their supply by the main natural drainages, the 
Budam&u and the Pull^ru (see_ Chapter I). 

On the Western Side op the Eiver. 

The Main Canal was opened to its end, 13 miles, though of course 
of a much less width than afterwards made. 

The Nizampatam Canal was far advanced as regards its earthwork, 
but was open for navigation only to the end of its first reach (22 miles 
from head of delta) the Lock and Weir there, at Kuchipudi, not being 
finished ; from that point the irrigation proceeded " by means of other 
channels still parallel to the canal and by sundry cuts some of them 8 
or 10 miles in length," the whole area so irrigated being 18,000 acres. 

The Bank Channel taking off from the left side of the Main Canal 
about 7 miles from its head (see No. 10 of statement on page 92) ran to 
" Vallabapuram on the edge of the Kistna where there is a masonry 
" Fall (or * Weir ') in full work. Over this some 15,000 oubio yards per 
" hour are sent down the remainder of the Bank Channel which is nothing 
«' but a line of pits for the river embankment connected, so that water may 
C{ flow down them ; its length from Vallabapuram to tide water is nearly 
" 40 miles.'' From above Vallabapuram Fall lc one main branch some 
" 12 miles long is led capable of watering all the land between the river 
" and the Mirmunghi drainage, but as yet it is hardly used. Not till it 
" reaches Vellatfir (33 \ miles), is the Bank Channel made much use of, 
"then it is repeatedly tapped by small channels which water 10,000 
" acres in the Eepalli taluk." 

From the end of the " Main Canal " just above the head of tho 
Nizampatam Canal was a " Masonry escape " by which " two-thirds of 
" the discharge of the Main Canal are passed into the old Tungabhadra 
" and taken down it for 12 miles when it is diverted by means of a rough- 
" stone dam into the Commamfir channel, a fine channel above 20 miles 
" in length, and 18 yards, and more, wide, originally made by Captain 
" Steele before the anicut was built ; it is dropped over a low dam at 
" Chabroli, and it is then tapped for irrigation until it loses itself in the 



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WORKS IN THE DELTA — SANCTIONS — EXECUTION — COST, 97 

" groat Bapatla tank." By the old Tungabhadra and this Commamir 
Channel 22,000 acres were irrigated. 

From this report we see that 9 years after the commencement of the 
anient there was not in the whole delta a single finished through line of 
canal or large artificial distributary, whilst so far from the drainage which 
it is so necessary should go hand in hand with irrigation, having been 
attended to, the natural surplus channels of the country had been seriously 
interfered with. Notwithstanding this, some 120,000 acres of land were 
being irrigated and protected from all fear of drought. 

In 1860-61 matters began to improve and the works to be again 
taken in hand with some degree of vigour, but 
in hand witlrvteonr. ** ^^ "* ^ e old piece- meal, disconnected, way, and 
fa 1862 the Government of India noticing this, 
requested that " a complete and comprehensive scheme of work remain- 
ing to be done in the Kistna District " might be drawn up. This was 
entrusted to Major J. O. Anderson, E.E., then District Engineer of the 
Kistna. 

He does not seem to have been given any special establishment to 
carry out the very considerable investigations 
propo«U§ andesttmate. nece88ai 7 f or ^ e elaboration of such a scheme as was 
required, and consequently the proposals made by 
him, in January 1863, were by no means complete, they dealt to a very 
imperfect extent with the distribution of irrigation water and almost 
entirely ignored the important subject of Drainage except in as far as it 
affected the proposed Commamur Canal ; they formed however a consider- 
able step towards a proper appreciation of what was still necessary. The 
proposals and estimates (many of them merely approximate lump sums) 
are given in the following statement. On this is also shown what up to 
September 1877 had really been done, or was in hand, towards carrying 
out these proposals : — 



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98 



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104 KISTNA DELTA ENGINE BRING HISTORY. 

The scheme was sent to the Secretary of State with a Government 
Order (No. 430, dated 12th February 1864) from which the following 
is an extract : — 

"2. Taking the total area of the Kistna Delta to be one million of Acres, 
lieutenant-Colonel Anderson assumes that only one-half consists of cultivable 
land, fitted by soil and elevation for being brought under wet cultivation 
by means of the Anicut at Bezoarah, of which half about one-fourth part 
only is as yet watered. Of these half million irrigable Acres, he assigns 
270,000 to the Masulipatam side of the river, and 230,000 to Guntoor, and 
allowing 2 cubio yards per Acre per hour as the quantity of water required 
in those Districts for a rice crop, .... he explains the inadequate 
capacity of the channels, as they now exist, for the conveyance into the 
Delta of the quantity of water for which pressing, and yearly increasing 
demands are made, and suggesting some additions to the Anicut itself to 
improve the supply, he conclusively shows that to give full effect to that 
work for the benefit of the people and the augmentation of the revenue, a 
further outlay on enlarging, improving, and extending channels must be 
incurred of Bupees 30,92,205, of which Bupees 16,17,166 are required to be 
spent in Masulipatam, and Bupees 14,75,039 in Guntoor, in addition to the 
aggregate of Bupees 24,42,550 already expended on the general scheme up 
to the end of 1862-63. 

41 3. The extent of land brought under irrigation up to that date is 
stated at 1,90,000 Acres, which, divided into the expenditure give 1214 
nearly as the capital sunk per Acre ; adding to the past expenditure the 
Bupees 30,92,205 which the works still require to be laid out on them to 
bring the whole 500,000 cultivable Acres of the Delta under irrigation, the 
average cost of watering each Acre will be not more than Bupees 11. If 
these calculations be at all correct, and there is no reason to believe that 
they are exaggerated, there can be no doubt that, beneficial and remunera- 
tive as the Kistna works are in their present unfinished state, they will be 
muoh more so when extended to completion, and that they will return a 
profit amply sufficient to justify the requisite expenditure upon them. The 
Government is satisfied that on financial grounds alone, if on no others, any 
outlay that may be required to extend irrigation from the Bezoarah Aniout 
tg the utmost may be safely incurred, and it will be prepared to take 
into favorable consideration all such projects as may be submitted by the 
Superintending Engineer for the progressive development of the entire 
scheme as rapidly as funds can be made available. 

" 4. As regards the proposed additions to the Aniout of piers between 
which planks could, when required, be inserted to raise the level of the 
water and' thereby throw a larger quantity into the channels than could 
otherwise be obtained at those times towards the end of the freshes when the 
river sometimes falls too low to furnish a full supply with the body of the 



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WORKS IN THE DELTA — SANCTIONS — ^EXECUTION — COST. 105 

Anient at its present elevation, the Government bearing in mind the great 
height of the work, as well as its peculiarly dangerous situation in a narrow 
gorge through which the river when in flood rushes with great force, is of 
opinion that any measures for even temporarily increasing the obstruction 
now offered by the Anient ought to be taken with the greatest caution, and 
it fears that the adoption of the expedient suggested by lieutenant-Colonel 
Anderson will not be unattended with risk, even if the work be strengthened 
as proposed, unless the means of rapidly removing the shutters at a few 
moments notice, either by day or by night be provided." 

It will be noticed from the above that the total anticipated cost of 

. . , A , , A the Kistna Delta works had now, 

Anticipated total cost— 

Bs. 24,42,650 already incurred. since 1849, swelled from 15| to up- 

Bs. 80,92,105 now proposed. wards of 55 lakhs, but the assured 

Be. 55,84,655. success, financially as well as other- 

wise, of the G-6davari works, and the 
promising results of what had already been done in the Kistna, smoothed 
the way for favourable consideration of this greatly increased expendi- 
ture, and without demur the Secretary of State notified his approval, in 
his Despatch No. 33 of 9th December 1864. Thenceforward for several 
years all sanotions for the Kistna Delta system were treated as against 
the sum of Bs. 30,92,105, and as forming part of Major Anderson's 
programme, though in many cases they were modifications of, or even, 
departures from, his proposals. What those sanctions were to 1881, 
when the new " Completion scheme " was sent in, cannot now be ascer- 
tained with certainty, but what they were to September 1877 will be* 
found in the statement already given at pages 98 to 103. 

In 1866 the Secretary of State sanctioned the adoption of the 
general prinoiple of supplementing the ordinary 
tlve Public Works! ,Wra " re8onrceB * Government by loans for the construc- 
tion of large public' works expected to be remu- 
nerative ; these were to be classed under the title of " Productive Public 
Works ", and of course the Kistna system, in common with that of the 
GhSdavari and the other chief irrigation systems of the Presidency, came 
into this category. From that time forward all grants, expenditure, and 
charges, on such works have been systematically recorded (which was by 
no means the case previously) and a much more elaborate system of 
charges against the works for estimated cost of establishments, share of 
leave and pension allowances, assumed expenses of collection of revenue 
in the Eevenue Department, &o., &o., was adopted. 

o 



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106 SISTOA. DELTA ENGINEEBING HISTORY. 

As large estimates were from time to time forwarded for sanction a& 
India again calls for P*** °^ Major Anderson's scheme though differing 

•pbmiuion of oompre. greatly from it, the Government of India in 1667 
henaiye scheme. . . . t , . 

again pressed for a complete and comprehensive 

scheme for the whole delta, remarking in its letter No. 168-L, dated 25tb 
October 1667 . . "In past years because of the difficulty of obtain- 
ing' funds to oarry out costly works, it might have been advantageous to 
break up such projects, and deal with them in fractions . . now when 
the difficulty in regard to the provision of funds no longer exists, there 
ip still less .reason why this course should be adopted," and it* goes on to 
request " that steps may be taken for the preparation of a complete 
project for the whole system of works for the Kistna Delta based on 
a comprehensive view of the available water supply and of the lands 
thai may be irrigated by that water." It took however many years 
before this request was fully complied with. 

In 1874 Lieutenant (now Colonel) D. McNeil Campbell, B.E. 

" Cppp^tlta Eiti- (afterwards Chief Engineer, Madras) prepared * 
»**■•" the " Completion estimates " for the Eastern Delta 

wd the greater part of the Western Delta ; these were reviewed and 
spinewhat altered by Colonel (now General) J. Mullins, E.E., who was 
then, and for many years after, Chief Engineer for Irrigation, and they. 
werp« with some subsequently prepared estimates, sent on to the Qtov- 
erftjaeni of. India (see Proceedings of Madras Government, No. 3672; 
dated, 19th December 1874, and No. 3528, dated 22nd December 1876). 
They were not however accompanied by the foreoasts of returns and) all; 
the revenue particulars, required by the Government of India, who 
accordingly declined to forward therii to the Secretary of State saying, 
" The Government of India much regret that it is unable even after 

Oeretament of India this long interval to decide whether these works can 
letter Ho. 89-1., 4th ^ e recommended to the Secretary of State f or« cob&- 
iffo. 814-1.' 5th ' May pletion, chargeable to the Productive Public Works 
WO. Grant, in the absence of definite recommenda- 

tions from the Government of Madras in its Eevenue Department." 

At last in May 1881 the whole scheme was sent 

Complete whoine on in the way required, with a " note " by the Chief 
submitted t* India. Engineer for Irrigation from which the following 

are extracts : — 

•See Proceedings of Madras Government, No. 3572, dated 19th Deoember 1874, and 
No. 601, dated 24th July 1878. 



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WORKS IN THE DELTA — SANCTIONS— EXECUTION — COST. 



107 



"2. The total cost of the system will be Re. 1,38,99,784 for direct 
charges, or Es. 1;66,70,813 including indirect charges as shown below : — 



— 


Expenditure 
to end of 
1879-80. 


Amount re- 
quired to 
complete 

sanctioned 
works. 


Delta com- 
pletion 
estimates 
now sub- 
mitted. 


Totel. 


Direct Charges. 


- ! 


RS. 


RS. 


RS. 


Works 


38,92,360 


69,167 


66,00,000 


1,05,61,527 


Establishment 


9,73,090 


17,292 


16,83,000 


26,73,882 


Tools and Plant 


2,44,798 


3,458 


4,18,000 


6,66,266 


Suspense Account 


65,315 


- 65,815 


... 


... 


Less Receipts on Capital 
Account. 

Total Diehct Charges ... 
Indirect Charges, 


— 1,881 


... 


... 


— 1,381 


61,64,182 


34,602 


87,01,000 


1,38,99,7*4 










Capitalized abatement of 

Land Revenue. 
Loss by Exchange 


2,05,279 


... 


2,59,000 
20,000 


4,64,279 
20,000 


Leave and Pension Allow- 


2,06,781 


3,675 


3,51,000 


5,61,456 


ances. 
Simple Interest 

Total Indirect Charges ... 

Total Direct and Indirect 
Charges. 


51,294 


... 


16,74,000 


17,25,294 


4,63,354 


3,675 


23,04,000 


27,71,029 


56,27,586 


38,277 


1,10,05,000 


1,66,70,818 



"11. The ultimate area of irrigation is estimated at 470,000 acres, and 

the revenue as approximately esti- 

**T^*Z*?^J!Zr anA ' mated b y the Board of Ke ™ ue » 

Ho. 96-1., dated 8th February 1881. J 

Es. Bs. 13,94,000. Deducting the work- 

• Estimated Revenue .. .. 18,94,000 i n g expenses at 12 annas an acre, and 

W SSwo«Cfu2 u. the C08t of coUection at 72 r er «»*■ 

annas per acre .. 3,62,600 on tn © revenue, the net revenue 

Collection charge* at w ill be Rs. 9,41,132,* or 677 per 

It! lSl/NIO 11 ' T. 1,00,368 Cent ' 0D th ° total direct char g e8 <>* 
4,52,868 the system, or 5- 65 per cent, including 

indirect charges. The above estimate 

NetEfrvenne .. 9,41,138 o{ Reveime is however exclusive of 

Publio Works Beceipts, due chiefly to 



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108 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

navigation, which already amount to a considerable sum, and will be made 
to cover navigation working expenses and interest on navigation outlay 
from 1870-71. These receipts are estimated at — 

B8. 

Navigation 82,500 

Miscellaneous 13,500 



Total . . 96,000 



Adding this to the revenue realized in the Bevenue Department, the total 
becomes 14*90 lakhs and the net revenue Es. 9,92,132, or 7- 14 per cent, on 
direct charges and 5 95 per cent, on direct and indirect charges. It may be 
noticed that the navigation mileage will be 348, and the receipts above 
estimated amount to Re. 237 per mile. On the Buckingham Canal, a very 
recently opened navigation, the receipts for 1880 averaged Rs. 412 per 
mile, so there can be no doubt of the Kistna receipts realizing the amount 
stated." 

Sanction of Secretary In February of the following year the Secretary 

of State to " Completion of State accorded his sanction to the scheme, in a 
Estimates. » despatch, an extract from which is here given : — 

" Despatch from the Most Honorable the Secretary of State for India, to 
His Excellency the Most Honorable the Governor-General of India 
in Council, dated India Office, London, 9th February 1882, Public 
Works, No. 9. 

"Youe Excellency's Public "Works letter, No. 40, dated 8th October 
last, submits for my sanction revised estimates for the completion of the 
Kistna Delta Irrigation and Navigation System. 

" 2. These estimates, so far as regards the probable revenue to be derived 
from the additional expenditure, are even now submitted in an imperfect 
shape, and have only been recently received by your Government from the 
Government of Madras, although that Government have been requested to 
furnish them since 1867. 



"4. The present proposals inolude a total direct outlay on the Kistna 
System of Es. 1,38,99,784, or Es. 83,65,029 in addition to the sum of 
Es. 55,34,755, as originally sanctioned by Sir C. Wood's Public Works 
Despatch, No. 33, of the 9th December 1864. This further expenditure 
called for consists of fresh work, in order to supply new distributaries, which 
will nearly double the irrigated area, with extensive drainage and improve- 
ments of old work, for the purpose of securing existing irrigation from risks 
which have been brought to light by past experience. Expenditure of such a 



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WOBKS IN THE DELTA — SANCTIONS — EXECUTION — COST. 109 

description as this last tends, of course, to the increase of capital outlay 
without a proportionate increase in the actual .direct returns from the work. 
Accordingly, the returns from the Kistna Delta System, which have hitherto 
averaged 9J per oent., and even exceeded 12 per cent., will now probably be 
reduced to 7 per cent. 

"5. The necessity, however, which ezisia for the proposed improvement 
and additions to the system is very clearly set forth in the papers trans- 
mitted with your letter, more particularly in the two notes on the subject by 
General Crofton and Colonel Brownlow ; and I agree with your Government 
in considering that the estimates, as they stand, may fairly be approved. 
I accordingly convey my sanction to the direct outlay from productive 
funds on the Kistna Delta System being increased from Hs. 55,34,765 to 
Es. 1,38,99,784. 

" 6. As these works have for many years past given a surplus net income 
in exoess of the interest charge on the capital invested in them, no question 
of adding interest to the capital has in their case yet arisen, nor in view of 
the actual condition and prospects of these works do I consider that the 
proposed addition to the capital, on which their future profits will be calcu- 
lated, will so increase the interest charge against the works as to affeot their 
claim to be treated as Productive Works." 

The summary of the new works to which this sanction was given is 
shown in the statement below, condensed from Appendix D with Proceed- 
ings of Madras G-overnment, No. 321-1., dated 12th May 1881, as revised 
with Proceedings of Madras Government, No. 181-1., dated 28th 
February 1882. The anticipated cost of the Works, exclusive of " Tools 
and Plant," "Establishments" and all "Indirect 

*v C ! rt J^ 7 b6 ^T!f charges" had now it will be seen mounted up to 
that originally antici- * 

pited. more than 105 J lakhs or nearly seven times the 

original forecast : — 



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110 



<tt*m?A D93RPA ISBTGlRfiSBnm HlffitOBlT. 



Statement of the ffistna. Delta Completion Estimates as sanctioned by the Secretary 
of State in his Despatch No. 9, dated 9th February 1882. 



Particulars. 


(1) 

Head 

Works. 


(2) 

Main 

Canals 

and 

Branches* 


(3) 
Distribu- 
taries. 


(4) 
Drain- 
age and 
Protec- 
tive 
Works. 


Total. 




RS. 


RS. 


RS. 


RS. 


RS. 


Head Works. Raising Anient. 
Eastern Section. 


1,30,000 


... 






1,30,000 












1st 8ub-section. 












Ilasnlipatam Canal 

Bank Canal 

Drainages 


... 


2,13,520 
8,85,445 


30,000 
1,86,217 


... 


2,43,520 

10,31,662 

48,653 


2nd Subjection. 












Ellore Oanal 


... 


1,87,560 


46,915 


36,795 


2,21,270 


3rd Sub-section. 












Ryves' Canal 

'Pulleru Canal 

UppuluTn Drain 

Ohendray akodn Drain 
Polrazkodu Drain and 

Affluents. 
Kolleru Embankment 


... 


58,115 
36,885 


1,07,890 
73,805 

•►• 

• •• 


28J725 
1,43,402 
1,87,180 

18,889 


1,66,005 
1,09,690 

►3,78,096 


4,th Sub-section. 












Polraz Canal 

Lower Pulleru 

Pullava Main Drain and 

Affluents. 

Damidi Drain 

Peddakommeleru Main Drain 

and Affluents, 
Peddalunka Main Drain and 

Affluents. 


••• 


1,41,400 


1,53,012 
48,660 


3,655 

20,080 

3,209 
41,686 

98,240 


2,98,067 
48,660 

► 1,63,215 


5th Subsection. 












Pulleru Canal 

Buntumilly Canal 

Lasabanda Drain and Afflu- 
ents. 

Sultanagaram Drain 

Kanakavally Drain 

Gudur Swamp Minor Chan- 
nels. 

Total, Eastern Section ... 


... 


1,30,180 


1,68,200 
15,350 


2,19i034 

2,827 

27,184 

7,500 


1,58,200 
1,45,530 

2,56,545 

J 


... 


15,52,605 


8,19,549 


8,86,959 


32,59,113 



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WOBKfl IN THB DEI/TA— SUfCnOKft^-BXECUnOK— COgT. 



Kit 



Statement of the Kistna Delta Completion Estimates as sanctioned by the Secretary 
of State in his Despatch No. 9, dated 9th February 1882— continued. 



Particulars. 


(1) 

Head 

Works. 


(2) 

Main 

Ganals 

and 

Branches. 


(3) 
Distribu- 
taries. 


(4) 
Drain- 
age and 
Protec- 
tive 
Works. 


Total. 


Western Section. 


R8. 


RS. 


RS. 


RS. 


RS. 


Main Canal 

Bank Canal 

Niiampataim Canal 

Gonunamnr Canal 

Repalli Main Drain 

Bhittiprole Main Drain 
Minor Main Drains 
Tangabna4ra Drain and 

Affluents. 
Bompern Drain and Affln- 

ents. 

Total, Western Section. 
Total ... 
Unforeseen Expenses 
G band Total, I Works . . . 


... 


5^020 

2,68,040 

10,645 

7,47,880 


MM70 

4£40 

1,71,010 


2,51,087 
47,863 
11,929 

6,16;191 

1,84,100 


5,38,020 

4,09,510 

15,585 

9,18,890 

•11,10,160 

J 


... 


15,64,686 


3,177420 


11,10,160 


29,92,-166 


1,30,000 


31,17,190 


11,36,969 


19,97,119 


63,81,278 


... 


... 


... 




2,18,722 




... 


•• 


... 


66,00,000 


Establishment, General Es- 
tablishment at 25 per cent. 

Surrey Establishment at i 
per oent. 

Tools and Plant, 2} per cent, 
on the estimate for drains. 

Tools and Plant, 8 per cent. 
on the estimates other 
than drains. 

Grand Total, Direct Charges, 
"Completion Estimate. 7 ' 


... 


... 


... 


... 


16,60,000 

33,000 

4»,928 

3,68,072 


»7,01,000 


Expenditure to end of 1879- 
80 and amount required to 
complete already sanction- 
ed works. 

Grand Total of Secretary 
of State's sanction for 
" Works " and " Direct 
Charges." 




... 


... 


... 


61,98,784 


1,38,90,784 



The following is a oondensed description of the works for which* the 
estimates provided : — 

Head Works. 

Raising Aniout by " building 3 feet in height of large Weok^of cut* 
stone well clamped together orer the front wall; the rough stone behind 



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112 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

being raised 3 feet, so as to retain the same slope as at present, and 
lengthening the apron by 50 feet," Es. 1,30,000. In dealing with 
this the Chief Engineer for Irrigation said : " The crest should not be 
raised an inch higher than is neoessary, and before the time for making 
an alteration comes there will be ample data to go on." What has been 
done is described in Chapter V. 

EASTERN DELTA. 

Masulipatam Canal. 

(a) Earthwork^ Rs. 1,74,660 — Widening, 1st Reach; to a bottom 
width of 110' to 115' (depth of water 8') to enable it to carry 1,912*5 
cusecs * with a surface fall of -33' per mile, for 3J miles to then intended 
head of the Bank Canal, and from there to end of reach at Eankipad 
Lock to a bottom width 61 to 76 feet (depth of water 7') to carry 1,012-5 
cusecs, of whioh 90 cusecs to be sent into minor distributaries, 502*5 
cuseos to go to the Pull£ru and 420 ouseos to a large distributary known 
as the " West-side channel," from just above the lock, leaving the other 
four reaches of the canal solely for navigation purposes, though it was 
noted that their "conversion into a still-water navigation will not 
prevent the use of the canal as a duot for the supply of irrigation 
water " should that prove advisable. 

(6) General Earthwork Improvements to 2nd to 5th reaches, 
Rs. 12,000. 

(c) Alteration Veranki Lock, Rs. 890. 

(d) New Lock at Nedumole, Be. 25,330. 

(6) Raising waUs of Akumarru Lock, Rs. 240. 
(/) Raising Chiritaguntapalem Bridge so as to give 12' headway, 
Rs. 400. 

( g) Lump sum allowanoe for distributaries, Rs. 30,000. 

Bank Canal. 

Rs. 10,21,662. — As the proposals made for this have not been, and 
will not be, carried out (see Chapter VII), it will suffice to say that the 
general idea was to make a navigable canal to " afford water com- 
munication of a practicable but inexpensive kind " starting from 3j 
miles of the Masulipatam Canal and running near the eastern side of 
the Kistna to the Puligadda branch of that river, over whioh water for 
irrigation of Divi Island was to be taken by an aqueduct estimated to 

* Cuseoe = cubio feet per eeoond. 



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tVORKS IN THE DELTA — SANCTIONS — EXECUTION — COST. 113- 

cost Us. 3,58,000. The canal was to have only one look, at its head, 
and a head-sluice to pass 900 eusecs. Its distributaries were to be 
numerous and expected to cost Es. 1,86,217. 

Ellobe Canal. 

(a) Earthwork. — Us. 56,510 (of whioh Us. 29,640 considered as 
belonging to irrigation and Es. 26,870 to navigation) thus described in 
the note of the Chief Engineer for Irrigation with P.M.GK, No. 3528, 
dated 22nd December 1876 : " The canal as revised will have a depth 
of 8 feet and a bed and surface fall of 0*08 feet per mile from the head 
to the 11th mile ; thence to the 20th mile the bed will be horizontal 
and the surface fall will be 0-228 feet a mile, the depth being thus 
diminished to 6 feet ; from this point to the end at the EUore Look the 
depth will be 6 feet and the bed and surface fall 0*228 a mile. . . . 
The water surfaoe is to be 60 feet in width as a minimum in the 
interests of the navigation, with however some diminution at old 
masonry works, whioh are serviceable and whioh it has not therefore 
been considered necessary to reconstruct. . . . The upper 35 
miles of the canal are very irregular, and adjustment and the restriction 
of the water to its proper width, instead of allowing it to spread over 
the sometimes extensive berms on either side, are the alterations 
needed. In the lower few miles the lowering of the canal bed materially 
involves more earthwork." 

(Jb) Masonry. — For improvement of tow-paths under bridges, 
Es. 885. 

(c) Distributaries. — Eight large irrigation channels, Bs. 46,915. 

(d) Cross Drainage Works.— Us. 80,165 made up of the following 
items, viz. : — 

R8. 

Improving existing Budameru aqueduct . . 1,880 

Another Budameru aqueduct at KSsarapally . . 28,000 

Alterations to the West TammilSru aqueduct • . 15,520 

East Tammil&ru outlet and an additional outlet. 17,230 
One inlet and 6 outlets to pass minor drainages 

across the canal 17,535 

Ewes' Canal. 

(a) Widening the 2nd and 3rd reaches and building a bridge, 
Es. 58,115. 

(b) Distributaries. — For whioh it was said " the arrangements are 
tot yet settled," Es* 1,07,890. 



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jPuMtfau Caka* (including '< Lower Pull&yu"). 
Tke provision* (which appear in the u statement " printed abov*, 
under three " sub-seotions ") are for — 

(a) Main canals and branches, Be. 36,385 ; 
(6) Distributaries, Bs. 2,80,165. 
No details were at the time submitted for these, but in May 1884 
(see P.M.Gh, No. ^p, dated 3rd May 1884), the amount required for 

Main Canals and Branches was reduoed to Bs. 22,385 which provided 
fpr the following works :— 

Bwew shutters to the two head-sluices at Kanld* 

pad 1,200 

Screw shutters to the Weyur Regulator ... 1,100 

Bridge over Pamarru junction canal 7,650 

Earthwork improvements 6,210 

Cattle crossings ... 6,325 

Total ... 22,385 



For the Distributaries no complete scheme was ever prepared, but it 
was intended, as has been the case, that detail estimates for individual 
channels should from time to time be submitted. 

Polraz Canal. 
(a) Earthwork (least bottom width of canal to be 85 feet), three 
second-class Locks, two Lock-weir8 y and the necessary Bridges and Escapes 
to niake the canal a seoond-class line of navigation as well as to carry 
water for 20,000 acres, Bs. 1,41,400; and also (6) a lump sum provision 
of Rs. 1,53,020 for " Distributaries." 

Bantumilli Canal. 

The Bs. 1,30,180 provided for this were for (a) earthwork required 
to continue it as a navigable canal to the Upput6ru ; (b) three second- 
class Looks and Weirs ; (c) one Bridge ; (rf) two Best-houses ; (e) nine 
" Cattle Ramps ; " (/) compensation for land ; and (#) improvement of 
an existing weir. 

Bs. 15,130 were also put down as a lump sum for " Distributaries." 

Drainage of Eastebn Delta. 
Bs. 8,86,959 were provided for the improvement of the drainage of 
this section of the delta, as shown in the following statement taken 
from Appendix F of P.M.G., No. 181 1., dated 28th February 1882 :— 



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wobks ov Tin delta— •AKcrnoiftf—uaictrnoK— COST. 



115 



Statement *A#i*fry tt# £>ti**M 9/ the Draim *fth$ Ki*t** Dek* 8yHm, 







BedUoed amounts for 




Full 




entry in the " Completion " 
Estimates. 




amounts 

of 
Estimates. 


Names of Drains. 




Remarks. 


Inditidusi 
Drains. 


Sub-seotion. 


B8. 




ES. 


BB. 




67,960 


Kanakala main drain 


19,820 




M t oi t 8aa-^.8eo rrl9>m 


1,000 


Devarapalli drain 


883 




61,600 


Talern (Divi) drain 


20,500 




• Vide parampfi 19 


26,000 


Gudirmotn (Divi) drain 


8,333 




of Note, Proajed- 


600 


Mopedevi drain 


16V 




ings, Madras Gov- 
ernment* No. 
8628, of 22nd 




1*1 9ub»84ction 




48,663 


Deoeniber.i&76. 

One-third of Buptts 
l,46,96tf-f*k pa- 


1,45,960 


... 














ragraph 6 of G.O., 










No. 8628, of 22nd 


8,470 
206,790 


Yfranki 

Inampudi 


} - 




Deoemoeril876. 
Nothing sanctioned 
on the grounds 
that* the lands 




2,10,260 








which Would be 
benefited were 












"semindari^ 








• 


Tide {Muragraph 9 of 
G.O., tf 0. 3638, of 
22nd fredember 


790 


Nakalam drain 


790 




1876. 


800 


Kesarapalli do. 


800 






700 


AtitapalU do. 


700 






670 


Athkur do. 


670 






800 


Fotipad do. 


200 






M*o 


Ampapuram do. 


2,610 







400 


Vkatalli do. 


400 






880 


Neflhragu do. 


880 






2,176 


Nstsanapalam do. 


2,176 






1,690 


Ganomold do. 


1,690 






470 


Perikeet do. 


470 






140 


Bamaleru do. 


140 






60 


Pnnnnkollu do. 


60 






8,260 


Peddapad do. 


8,260 






870 


Wntlnr do. 


870 






2,800 


West Tnmmelern do. 


2,800 






400 


Jolipndi do. 


400 






2,166 


Bast Tummelnra do. 


2,16* 






1,84* 


Minor drains ... •*. 


1,841 






14120 


MibOr improvements to 










masonry works 
2nd 0ad-wctfow 


10,120 


86,796 


Tide paragraph 10 
ofG.O.*No,*628» 


88,79ft 


... 














of22ndDeoember 








. 


1870, 



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116 



XISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HIBTOBT. 



Statement showing the Estimates of the Drains of the Kistna Delta 8ysiefo, 
Eastern Delta— eont. 



Full 
amounts 

of 
Estimates. 



Names of Drains. 



Beduoed amounts for 

entry in the " Completion" 

Estimates. 



Individual 
Drains. 



Sub-section. 



Remarks. 



B8. 

47,330 

2,86,280 

1,90,476 

1,02,335 

15,520 

31,040 



6,22,980 



60,240 

9,625 
1,25,058 

2,94,720 



4,89,643 



8,655 



1,87,250 
49,755 

8,630 
46,410 

8,770 
86,245 
10,000 



8,42,060 



Uppuluru drain , 

Ghendrayakodu do. , 
Polrazkodu do. , 

Komaravole do. 

Palakodu do. 

Kolleru embankment , 

3rd Bub section ... 



Pnllava main drain and 

affluents 
Dammide drain 
Peddakomeleru drain 

and affluents 
Peddalunka drain and 

affluents 

4th Subsection ... 



Embanking Upputeru . 



Lasahunda drain 
Yadlamanad affluent 
Isnkaparra do. 
Gokavaram drain 
Sultanagaran do. 
Kanakavally do. 
Gudur swamp minor 
channels 

5th Bub-section 



18,61,853 Total, Eastern Dblta. 



us. 

28,725 
1,43,402 
1,15,602 

62,109 
9,419 

18,839 



20,080 
3,209 

41,686 

98,240 



8,655 



1,40,438 
87,816 

6,472 
34,808 

2,827 
27,184 

7.500 



Ei. 



3,78,096 



1,63,216 



8,655 



2,56,545 



8,86,969 



Appendix D printed 
with Prooeedings, 
Madras Govern- 
ment No. 17 I., of 
9th January 1879. 

Vide paragraph 83 
of note in Pro- 
oeedings, 
Madras Gov- 
ernment, No. 
3258, 22nd Dec- 
ember 1876. 

One-third of Rupees 
4,89,643— vide pa- 
ragraph 13 of 
G.O., No. 8528, 
of 22nd Deoember 
1876. 

Vide paragraph 11 
of G.O., No. 3628, 
of 22nd Deoember 
1876. 



Appendix D printed 
with Prooeedings, 
Madras Govern- 
ment, No. 17 I., 
9th January 1879. 



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WOBKfl IK THB DELTA— SANCTIONS— EXECUTION— COST. 117 

WESTEBN DELTA. 

Main Canal. 

Widening from Head-sluice to Duggirala Lock, 13 miles, Rs. 5,38,020. — 
Bottom width as far as Eavendrapad (head of Bank Canal), 230 feet, 
maximum depth 8£ feet, discharge 3,317 ouseos; * from thenoe to Duggi- 
rala Look, 141 feet, maximum discharge 1,884 cusecs ; side slopes 2 to 
1 ; fall 027 per mile. 

Bank Canal. 

(a) Earthwork Rs. 1,23,715. — To make it a seoond-olass line 
of navigation through to the river, as well as to fit it to oarry water for 
the irrigation of 70,000 acres — 

For the first 13 J miles, bottom width, 75 feet ; 
For the next 20 miles, bottom width 70 to 49 feet ; and 
Beyond that, bottom width, 25 feet. 
(6) Masonry ', Rs. 1,52,325. — For (1) increase of size of Head- 
sluice from 5 to 8 vents ; (2) five new Locks (seoond-olass) ; (3) two new 
Lock Weirs and alteration of three others ; (4) three Best-houses ; (5) 
Bamps ; (6) five Drainage inlets in the first 7 miles ; and (7) Eollipara 
Surplus-weir and channel. 

(c) Distributaries, Rs. 1,41,470. — For 12 large irrigation chan- 
nels with their branohes and a lump sum (Bs. 30,000) for " Manor 
distributaries." 

Nizampatam Canal. 

(a) Earthwork, Es. 10,645. — Raising and strengthening the banks 
to allow water to be held up at Kuchipudi and Intur looks for still water 
navigation, almost all irrigation water being conveyed by two large 
li Side channels " taking off from above the head lock. 

(6) Distributaries .-r-Improvirig Head-sluioe of the "West 8ide ,, 
channel and extending it for H miles ; Bs. 4,940. 

CoMMAMtJB Canal. 

(a) Earthwork, Rs. 2,94,790 and Land Compensation, Rs. 5,480. — 
To make the oanal a first-class line of navigation and to oarry water 
for 80,000 aores of irrigation. Bottom widths, first reach, 130' — 104' ; 
second reach, 93' — 89' ; third reaoh, 81' — 59' ; fourth and fifth reaches, 
from which no irrigation proposed, 36'. 

(b) Masonry Works. — Improvement of Head-sluioe of oanal — 
four new first-class Looks and Weirs — improvements of two existing 
Lock- weirs and one esoape ; four new Bridges ; 4 three Best-houses ; 
Cattle crossings, &o. 

• Guseos ss onbio feet per seoond. 



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113 



XI8TNA DELTA BNaOTEBBlNG HIBTOBY. 



(c) Cross Drainage Works, Rs. 2,49,350.— Of this, Ha. 1,88,250 
for eight new Aqueducts (Ountdr Natta, Nahkavagu, Nallamada, Sdki- 
kalwa, Karenchedu, Stcerna, Alleru and EmmiUru), and the remainder 
for improvements to existing workB, and for some 8,000 running feet of 
eaoh " Inlets " and " Outlets." 

(d) Distributaries, Rs. 1,71,010.— For 13 large irrigation chan- 
nels and branohes complete. 

Drainages of the Western Delta. 

For these Rs. 11,10,160 were provided as shown in the following 
statement taken from Appendix F with P.M.6K, No. 181 1., dated 28th 
February 1882 :— 

Statement showing the Estimates of the Drains of the Kistna Delta System, 

Western Delta. 



Full 

amounts 

of 

Estimates. 


Names of Drains. 


Beduoed amounts for entry in 
the." Completion" Estimates. 


Remarks. 


Individual 
Drains. 


Bub-seetion. 


Hi. 

6,24,970 
6,440 
8,106 

16,346 
8,870 

27,346 

4*306 

6,796 

1,18,610 

7,296 

21,026 


Bepalle main drain 
Nandiveluga affluent ... 
Jagadigunta do. 
Gundera do. 
Lanjagnnta do. 
Kstut do. 
Pemucalra do. 
Nagaram do. 
Bhatti prole drain 
Peddapalli do. 
Nizampatam do. 

Rfyalle drain Subsection 

Tnngabhadra main drain 
Kunderu affluent 
Kollimerla do. 
Doppalapudi do. 
Nallamada branch drain. 
Pundla affluent 
Tenali branch drain ... 

Tungabhadra drain Sue. 
section 

Bomperu drain 

Bapatla affluent 
Karenchedu do. 
Parchoryagu do. 
Sweraa do. 
Alleru do. 

Rcmptru drmin £«&- 
aeetion 

Total, Westbbn 
Delta ... 


RS. 

2,21,137 
2,291 
1,806 
6,884 
8,786 

11,618 
1,772 
2,441 

47,863 
8,073 
8,866 


Rs. 

3,10,869 
[ 6,16,191 

J 


Appendix D printed 
with Proceedings, 
Madras Government, 
No.l7L,of9thJaou- 
aryl87». 

Do. do. 

G.O., No. 286 L» of 
9td September 
1877. 


7,38,006 


... 


6\96,186 
41,496 
3,81,846 
16,640 
3,99,760 
1,86,860 
1,86*690 


... 


18,67,366 


... 


3,36.100 
20,160 
16,660 
16,790 
4,400 
10£70 


1,16,230 
20,160 
16,660 
16,790 
4,400 
10,870 


4>08£7O 


... 


1,84,100 


29,99,840 


,.. 


11,10,160 



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WOfcKS I* TUB DELTA— SAWnONS— feXfcCCflOW— COST. lid 

It will be seen that at last the Drainage question was reoeiving 
considerable attention, no less than Ea. 10,97,119 ont of Us. 63,81,278 
(exclusive of " unforeseen works ") being for that purpose. The general 
principle* and system on whioh the disoharging capacity for the drainage 
ohannels and the inoidenoe of oost were fixed oan be best explained by 
giving the following extracts from the " Notes " of the Chief Engineer 
for Irrigation (Colonel J. Mullins, B.E.) when reviewing the estimates, 
and from the Government Order dealing with them : — 

" 8. The drainage of the delta is a matter of great importance both as 
- . regards the well being and prosperity of this tract 

of very rich country, but also from a financial 
point of view. It became necessary to introduce some principle en which to 
Colonel M ninnt ' Hot* base *h* designs of this class of work, and the 
with F.X.3., X* 367ft arrangements prescribed are as follow. It waa 
dated 19th December 1S7C manifestly impracticable, in a country situated 
as. ia the delta, to dispose of rainfall drainage within the delta and that 
from the uplands after its entrance within the delta limits, as fast aa it 
came down or accumulated, and it was believed also to be unnecessary 
that this should be done. Generally speaking standing wet crops would 
not be liable to injury from an excess of water during several days, or 
from submergence for a short period. It is, therefore, intended to dispose 
of the maximum estimated drainage of six days within that time. More- 
over, aa the amount of drainage is not in direct proportion to the area 
drained, and as it is. believed that the real proportion is sufficiently closely 
determined by the formula D = <^M*, in which M represents the area 
drained in square miles, that equation has been made use of. For the 
determination of the actual discharge a standard area of 5 square miles has 
been taken, and has been assumed for this particular part of the country 
to be 450 per cubic feet a second. On these data the maximum drainage 
from 5 square miles will be 1,314 cubic feet a second, equivalent to a little 
under 10 inches in the 24 hours. Six days have been taken as the time 
within which the lands are to be freed from flood waters, and in addition to 
the maximum rainfall drainage of 10 inches on one day, it has been 
supposed that 2 inches will be due to the other 5 days, so that altogether 12 
inches will have to be disposed of in 6 days, or 2 inches a day from the area 
of 5 square miles. For other areas the relative drainage has been 
determined by the formula above given, and the results are as follow : — 
10 square miles ; discharge doe to a drainage from the whole area of 1*60 inches. 



20 


Do. 


do. 


do. 


1-27 


80 


Do. 


do. 


do. 


1-10 


40 


Do. 


do. 


do. 


100 


60 


Do. 


do. 


do. 


090 


76 


Do. 


do. 


do. 


0*81 


100 


Do. 


do. 


do. 


0-74 


126 


Do. 


do. 


do. 


0*69 


160 


Do. 


do. 


do. 


0-65 



and so on for any other areas. 



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120 K1STNA DELTA ENGINEEBIKG HISTOBY. 

" This arrangement is applicable of oourse only to drainage within the 
delta, the area of which will be sub-divided by canals, channels, main and 
subsidiary drains, into a number of comparatively small spaces, on which 
drainage will accumulate after very heavy falls of rain, and thereafter be 
carried away as fast as the drains will allow. 

" Upland, or extra delta, drainage will have to be disposed of, so far as 
passing it across the canals is concerned, as fast, or very nearly as fast, as 
it can come down. # # # # 

11 The drainage of the delta lands, so far as this may be connected with 
the disposal of surplus irrigation water, rendered necessary to admit of the 
extension of irrigation, or may be required for the benefit of lands already 
irrigated, is fairly chargeable to the general scheme of the delta irrigation. 
Beyond this it would seem that the irrigation works are in no way liable to 
bear the charge, and if any further works be debited to the capital account 
of the delta scheme, it should only be on the ground that if there be a like- 
lihood of a return from irrigation considerably exceeding the interest on the 
money invested, some part of the capital represented by the difference may 
be invested in the general improvement of the condition and healthf ulnees 
of the country from which such revenue is derived. If so, it is of course 
surplus revenue only that should be applied to such a purpose. 

" It has been supposed by the Government, in connection with the papers 
on the village drainage of the Godavery, that artificial irrigation is a prin- 
cipal cause of the need of drainage, but that this is^not really the case may 
easily be shown. Very small drains comparatively will convey away all the 
surplus irrigation water. The total supply on this account is but a little 
over one-third of an inch in the 24 hours, and of this only a small fraction 
is surplused from the lands, because when there is heavy rainfall, and when 
consequently much water is not required on the fields, the quantity admitted 
at the head- sluices is diminished, and much of that which enters the canals 
is sent direct into the drains and natural streams. Probably, therefore, at 
the outside, one-fifth of an inch in the 24 hours would be the largest drain- 
age due to the irrigation works, and as has been above shown this would be 
but one-tenth of the quantity due to rainfall. Natural causes render great 
drains necessary, and it would seem to follow that the irrigation project is 
not bound to pay more than a comparatively small fraction of the cost of 
providing them. ♦ ♦ • # 

" The maximum falls are less in the latitude of the Kistna than further 

Colonel Mullini' Koto 8 <>uth, but 21 inohes have been registered at 

with P.K.G. No. 3628, dated Madras (in 24 hours) 13 to 15 inohes have several 

28nd December 1876. times been measured in its neighbourhood, and 

13$ inches were recorded at Nellore, less than 150 miles to the south of the 



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Works in the delta— sanctions — execution — cost. 12l 

Kistna delta, in 1859. Such being the case, the provision intended to be 
made in the Kistna delta does not appear to be at all excessive. 

" Drains will be carried out gradually and tentatively. — On the other hand, 
there is no intention of making these drains of the full size at once. This 
could not conveniently be done even were the dimensions known to be cor- 
rect, but the advantage of providing for fairly ample dimensions from the 
first will be that embankments, infall works of branch drains, inlets, &c, 
will be placed at a sufficient distance from the centre lines of the main drains, 
and there will be no waste of money in removing them to a greater distanoe 
hereafter. The drains will be cut first to one-fourth then to one one-third, 
then, say, to half their full size, and so on progressively as labor may be 
available and as observation may show to be desirable. During the interval 
of some years that will elapse the data required for a correct estimate of the 
requirements of the country will be accumulating. 



" 4. The estimates include provision for the complete drainage of the 
country on a scale which has been designed to 

wi^ac^befme. ^^ aBow of ■" ra£nfaU ^^^ bein & <%><>sed of 
within a maximum period of 6 days. The data for 

deciding on the requisite capacity of drains for the relief of given areas are 

confessedly imperfect, and consequently it is proposed to cut them at first 

to from one-third to half of the designed dimensions, and thus to ascertain 

experimentally what is necessary for the efficient drainage of each particular 

locality. Another important point which has to be determined is the proper 

incidence of the cost of drainage works. It has been shown that the 

quantity of surplus irrigation water to be disposed of is small compared with 

the discharge due to rainfall, and, on the other hand, the irrigated area 

interested in the improvement of the drainage is only about 86 per cent, of 

the gross area. It will therefore not be proper to charge to the Delta 

system the whole cost of the drainage works, but at the present moment 

the Government are not in a position to arrive at a conclusion as to the 

proper distribution of the charge. The subject has for some time past been 

engaging attention, and it is thought that the best plan will- be — 

" 1st, — to consider these drainage estimates as an approximate indica- 
tion of the amount which may ultimately have to be spent for the improvement 
of the agricultural condition of this tract of country ; 

" 2ndly } — to assume that about one-third of the amount of these 
estimates will require to be laid out concurrently with the extension of 
irrigation in order, first, to provide for the removal of the more prominent 
existing obstructions to effective drainage, and, secondly, to prevent all risk 
of deterioration of the condition of the country from the introduction by the 
canals of an increased supply of water j 



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122 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

" Zrdly, — to take sanction for this one-third of these estimates as a 
lump sum provision for drainage, all proposals for expenditure being sub- 
sequently submitted for the specific sanction of this Government, so that 
improvements which may be shown to be necessary may from time to time 
be approved for execution ; 

" 4M/y, — to charge to the Delta system the cost of this partial drainage 
on the assumption that at least so much will be necessary either in the 
interests of the irrigated area, or to prevent increase of the inconvenience 
arising from defective drainage. By judicious arrangemeuts it is anticipated 
that a good deal of subsidiary drainage will be secured without extra, or at 
a nominal, expense by forming catch-drains alongside distributaries when 
outside cutting is required to make up the channel banks to proper section. 
This arrangement has been provided for in laying out the distribution, and 
should be carefully borne in mind during the execution of the works/ * 

The principles fhus laid down have not been closely adhered to, but 
none better for the systematio treatment of the problem have yet been 
formulated. Much of the money spent on the large drainages of the 
Kistna Delta, especially in its Western seotion, has gone in cutting off 
loops and bends. There is apparently great difference of opinion as to 
the utility of such " Straight-cuts," but, in order to draw special atten- 
tion to the subject in dealing with what remains to be done on the large, 
drainages of the Kistna, the compiler of this history would record his 
conviction from experience, that " Straight-cuts " interpolated here and 
there along the naturally winding course of a dolta stream, are useless as 
regards the object of getting flood water more quickly to the sea, whilst 
they so upset the natural regime of the stream as to make the state of 
affairs worse than before, especially at the junctions of the outs with the 
natural stream. Of course these remarks do not refer to improvement of 
existing tortuous channels by adapting their capacities to requirements, 
and by judicious easing off too abrupt turns and bends ; they refer 
solely to new outs here and theie along the streams. 

Directly the sanction to the so-called " Completion Project M was 
received, the works were taken in hand with vigour, Mr. J. W. Eundall 
being then, and for several years after, the Superintending Engineer. 
No useful purpose would be served by following in detail the execution 
of these works, but in the " Statement of Expenditure on Capital 
Account," Appendix No. II, will be found the expenditure on them year 
by year. From this it will be seen that the year after receipt of the 
sanction, expenditure on '•* Works " roseto Es. 3,13,761 and has since 
generally been between 3 and 4J lakhs annually, whilst the total 



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WOBKS IN THB DELTA— SANCTIONS— EXECUTION — COST. 



123 



expenditure, Direct and Indirect, has amounted to Re. 1,31,91,665; 
more than that on the Goddvari Delta system. 

The sanction of the Secretary of State in February fc682 to the 
,r Completion Estimates," Rs. 1,39,19,784 (seepage 108) had acoording 
to rules a currency of only five years ; it was then renewed for five years 
more, and on the expiration of that time was again renewed to 1st April 
1893, when again a further extension of another five years was allowed 
to 1st April 1898. On that date however it was decided "to close 



See P.M.G., No. 



* the construction estimate " 



and to 



640 1., dated 26th Jane treat any subsequent outlay on works remaining 
1896. incomplete on that date, and on all extensions 

and improvements which are found neoessary for the extension of 
irrigation in the delta under the c Open Canal Capital Eules,' each such 
extension and improvement being considered on its own merit8. ,, This 
has accordingly been done. 

In oarrying out the works of the " Project " there have been many 
deviations from its provisions, and it was hoped that the statement 
embodying all such changes, which will have to acoompany the "Keview" 
on the closing of the "Construction E8timate, ,, would have been avail- 
able for the purposes of this history, but this is not the case. The 
comparison of actual expenditure with the sanction under " Main " and 
" Sub-heads " is however given in the following statement : — 

Statement of Capital Outlay incurred on the Kistna Delta System to end of 
1897-98, compared by Main and Sub-heads with the estimate sanctioned 
by the Secretary of State in G.O., No. 291 J., dated 28M March 1882, and 
as modified up to Slst March 1898. 



Main and sub-heads. 



C ® J3-W 

■S ^ $ a a 
H 



*S6"S 

jib! 






Difference. 



rg585 

w ? C wCCOQ 






Direct Charges. 
I. Works— 

1. Head works — 

B. Land 

C. Works ... 
K. Buildings 

O. Miscellaneous 

Total 



1,30,500 



1,30,500 



5,875 

2,80,500 

93,250 

3,615 



3,83,240 



RS. 

9,593 

1,19,277 

94,533 

4,339 



9,593 
11,223 
94,638 

4,839 



2,27,742 



- 97,242 



■ 8,718 

1,61,223 

- 1,288 

724 



1,55,498 



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124 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 



Statement of Capital Outlay incurred on the Kutna 
o/1897-98, Spc.— continued. 



Delta By etem to end 



Main and iub-headi. 




Ilk 

III! 






Difference. 



i 



ra, 

is* 



ill 
4 ?il 



Direct Charges— cont. 
I. Works— eont 

2. Main Canals and 
Branches — 
A. Preliminary ex- 
penses. 
H. Land 

D. Regulators 

E. Falls and weirs ... 

F. River and Hill 

torrent works. 

F. ^1) Other cross 

drainage works 

G. Bridges 

H. Escapes 

I. Navigation works. 
K. Buildings 

L. Earthwork 
N. Tanks and reser- 
voirs. 
0. Miscellaneous ... 
P. Maintenance 

Total ... 

8. Distributaries— 

A. Preliminary ex- 

penses. 

B. Land 

C. Works 

L. Earthwork 

O. Miscellaneous ... 

Total ... 

4. Drainages and Pro- 
tective works — 

A. Preliminary ex- 

penses. 

B. Land 

0. Works 

L. Earthwork 

O. Miscellaneous ... 
P. Maintenance 

Total ... 

Provision for unfore- 
seen works. 

Total current sanc- 
tions. 

Old outlay 

Total, Works ... 



33,700 

65,050 

11,530 

6,88,015 

36,129 

1,58,033 
24,260 

5,49,979 

26,813 

22,07,221 



86,815 
32,000 



RS. 



1,160 

1,14,445 
75,520 
17,288 

4,29,847 

49,692 

1,22,209 

10,591 

4,87,727 

54,939 

20,50,828 



1,03,364 



38,69,545 



99,160 
3,54,721 
7,75,035 

31,453 



12,60,369 



88,001 

3,37,616 

15,87,633 

37,386 



20,00,636 



35,17,610 



2,596 

2,08,919 

5,15,305 

7,99,925 

99,830 



1,203 

95,336 
1,81,544 

18,152 
3,10,671 

51,234 

1,04,821 

10,022 

4,27,932 

59,240 

19,62,239 

780 

1,12,073 



33,35,247 



16,26,575 



2,329 

1,14,760 

4,74,158 

17,08,119 

48,526 

5,000 



2,18,722 



74,79,772 
3031,755 



1,05,61,527 



23,52,892 



6,732 



78,87,049 
30,81,755 



2,804 

1,33,131 

4,08,940 

6,51,984 

87,299 



RS. 



- 1,203 

- 61,688 
-1,16,494 

- 6,628 

8,77,344 

- 15,105 

58,212 

14,238 

1,22,047 

- 82,487 
2,44,982 

780 

- 75,868 
32,000 



5,34,298 



12,34,158 



- 8,804 

- 88,971 

• 54,819 
1,23,051 

• 5,846 



26,211 



803 

69,792 

2,48,323 

12,70,655 

22,316 

97 



16,11,986 



1,09,68,804 



64,09,133 
30,81,755 



19,100 

-1,06,084 

864 

1,19,176 

- 1,548 

17,388 
569 

59,795 
4,301 

88,589 
780 

- 8,709 



1,82,363 



908 

75,788 
1,06,365 
1,47,941 

62,531 



3,92,417 



808 

18,209 

89,293 

2,66,978 

15,070 

97 



3,88,650 



2,18,722 
10,70,039 



1,526 

44,968 
2,25,835 
4,37,464 

26,210 
4,903 



7,40,906 



6,732 



14,77,916 



94,90,888 10,70,639 14,77,916 



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WORKS IN THE DELTA — SANCTIONS— EXECUTION— COST. 



125 



Statement 0/ Capital Outlay incurred on the Eittna Delta System to end 
©/1897-98, $0.— oontinued. 



Main and sab-heads. 



w 






i||t 



s 
5. 



[I 



Difference. 



111! 



i. 
V 



Ipi 






Direct Charges — con*. 

Brought forward 
II. Establishment 
HI. Tools and Plant 
1II-A. Loss by exohange.* 



Grand Total ... 

Leas reoeipta on capital 
aooonnt. 



Total, Direct Ohaboes. 



Indirect Charges. 

Capitalized abatement of 

Land Revenue. 
Leave and Pension allow- 



Total, Indirect Charges. 



Total, Direct and In- 
direct Charges- 
Capital Account. 



Interest on direct outlay 
while work is under con- 
struction. 



Geand Total ... 



R8. 

1,05,61,527 

26,73,882 

6,66,256 

20,000 



1,89,21,165 
1,381 



1,89,19,784 



4,64,279 
5,61,456 



10,25,735 



1,49,45,519 



17,25,294 



1,66,70,818 



1,09,68,804 

25,61,898 

6,88,829 



as. 

94,90,888 

22,14,258 

6,60,944 



1,42,19,531 
6,521 



1,23,66,090 
15,400 



1,42,13,010 



1,23,50,690 



6,52,200 
4,28,960 



9,81,160 



1,51,94,170 



4,53,037 
3,87,938 



8,40,976 



1,31,91,665 



10,70,689 

4,59,124 

5,312 

20,000 



14,77,916 

3,47,640 

27,885 



15,55,075 
- 14,019 



18,53,441 
- M79 



15,69,094 



18,62,320 



11,242 
1,73,518 



1,84,760 



99,163 
41,022 

1,40,185 



17,53,854 



20,02,505 



17,25,294 



1,61,94,170 1,81,91,666 



1 



84,79,148 



90,02,506 



• In the original statement sent to Government of India with No. 313, dated 12th 
May 1881, this " Loss by Exohange " appears under " Indirect chargos." 

The above deals only with the " Capital " expenditure, but besides 
this there has of course been the continuous cost of upkeep of the 
works, establishment for the purpose, &c., known as "Bbvbnue" 
expenditure, which to end of 1897-98 has amounted to Es. 2,31,85,707 
as shown in the following statement : — 



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126 K.ISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

Statement thawing the Expenditure and Charge* to end of 1897-98 on 
Ebventtb Account, Kittna Delia System. 



Direct Charom— 



Extensions and Improvements 
Maintenance and Repairs 



Establishment Charges to end of 1881-82 
Establishment Charges from 1882-88 to 1897-98 
23 per cent, on expenditure (exclusive of land 

compensation) 

10 per cent, on receipts in the P.W.D. 
6 do. on purely *' Irrigation " revenue 
(this charge was first introduced in 1882-83 
as a relief to '• Provincial Funds ") ... 14,78,128 



r orks ... 


{ 


2,92,223 




58,10,025 




BS. 







12,64,855 




BS. 






8,03,740 






73,054 







23,54,922 



36,19,777 
Tools and Plant 8,29,447 

Total, Direct Charges ... 1,05,51,472 
Indirect Charges, viz. — 

Capitalised abatement of revenue on lands taken up for the works, and 

leave and pension allowances at 14 per cent, on establishment charges. 6,08,810 

Charges for collection of Revenue by Civil Officers. (This is a percent- 
age charge on all Irrigation Revenue ; it has varied from time to 
time, is now calculated at 5 per cent.) 24,10,156 

Interest calculated at 4 per oent. per annum on Direct charges of 
Capital Outlay 96,15,269 



Total, Indirect Charges ... 1,26,34,235 
Grand Total ... 2,81,86,707 

It will be seen that by far the largest item in the above statement 
(Es. 96,15,269) is the " Interest charged on the Capital Outlay " ; this 
is still being charged, thongh nearly all of it might well before this 
have been extinguished by a sinking fund raised from the large surplus 
profits of the system. Another large item (Rs. 24,10,156) is the 
arbitrary charge for collection by Civil establishment of Eevenue due 
to the system ; this charge is now calculated at 5 per cent, on that rev- 
enue, and the better the returns the larger of course will be this charge. 
This is also the case with the charge, first introduced in 1882-83, of 6 
per oent. on the purely Irrigation revenue for supposed extra cost, 
in dealing with suoh revenue entailed on the Public Works Depart- 
ment ; this has amounted to Es. 14,78,128. In fact the only item in 
the statement on which economy is possible is that for " Maintenance 
and Eepairs " (upkeep and so on) of the works. Now, whilst no policy 



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WOBKS IN THE DELTA — SANCTIONS — EXECUTION — COST. 127 

could be more in judicious than that of so scrimping allotments for the 
working expenses or upkeep of the works as to lead to their deteriora- 
tion, it is advisable to keep within bounds the natural tendency to 
extravagance in that direction, and the following facts bearing on the 
subject are worth considering : — 

When the " Project " was sent on for sanction (see P.M.Gh, No. 
312 L, dated 12th May 1881), the " Working expenses " were estimated 
at 12 annas per acre for works and repairs, establishment, and tools and 
plant, but exolusive of " Collection charges," or of " Interest." In 1885 
this anticipated rate was increased to 14 annas per acre with the fol- 
lowing remarks, which will be found in the Note of the Chief Engineer 
for Irrigation with P.M.G., No. 80 I., dated 29th January 1885 :— 

" The Superintending Engineer, II Circle, has suggested that the pro* 
vision for working expenses should be increased from 12 to 14 annas per 
acre, as the average rate for the five years from 1878-79 to 1882-83 is 
Es. 0*86, or nearly 14 annas per acre. The period adopted for deducing 
the average rate, however, includes years in which the cost of repairs 
was abnormally high, owing to damages caused by floods. The average rate 
does not include indirect charges, but includes all repairs both to Irrigation 
and Navigation works, while the estimated rate of 12 annas per acre is only 
for repairs to Irrigation works, the cost of repairs to Navigation works being 
separately estimated at Es. 45,000. It was hitherto believed that the cost 
of maintenance would be reduced when the works were improved, but it is 
now apprehended by the Superintending Engineer that there will be a 
considerable increase in the rates for labor and materials, when the lines of 
railway now under construction are completed. The suggestion of the 
Superintending Engineer to increase the rate from 12 to 14 annas per acre 
is therefore approved, and the forecast statements have been drawn up 
accordingly. As the water in the Kistna canals is more highly charged with 
silt than that in the canals of the God&vari delta, the cost of maintenance 
in the Kistna delta is more than that in the Goddvari delta, for which system 
the estimated rate is only 8 annas per acre." * 

The Kistna system working expenses (exclusive of Navigation 
charges) have mounted up to almost 1 rupee per acre, not including 
any " Indirect," " Collection " or u Interest " charges. 



♦ The " Working expenses" of the Godayari system ore now really from 12 to 15 
annas per acre ; see page 105, " Engineering Works of the Goclayari Delta," and 
Administration Report, 1896-97. 



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( 1«8 ) 



CHAPTER VII. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF WHOLE 8TSTEM OF 
CANALS, ETC. 

The history of the construction of the works having been given, this 
chapter will be devoted to a brief description of their more important 
features as now. existing; this, with the Sketch Map at the end of 
Chapter I and the larger scale maps in Volume II will, it is hoped, 
give a clear idea of the whole system. 

First then, commencing with the Anicut and Head Wobks: The 
Anient has a total length, inclusive of its Under-Sluioes, of 3,714 feet. 
The foundations and section of the body wall are described in Chapter 
III and shown on Plan 5 of Volume II. The level of its crest as origi- 
nally constructed was + 4625 above mean sea-level (approximate) and 
is now, after the various alterations described in Chapter V, + 47*50. 
From 1 foot below the crest, or in some places where alterations have 
been made, from the crest itself, an " apron," the surface of which is 
carefully packed large stone grouted with, or in parts covered with, 
concrete, extends for 94 feet, the first 20 feet being horizontal, or 
nearly so, and the remainder sloping down to + 40*25, where there is 
a " retaining " or " bond " wall 5 feet thiok ; beyond this again there 
is a talus of rough stone extending for a length of from 120 feet to 150 
feet, and sloping down to the river-bed. Along the crest of the Anient 
there have now been fixed iron shutters * 3 feet high, so arranged as to 
fall when water tops them by from 1£ feet to 1^ feet (see Chapter V) ; 
a drawing of these shutters will be found in Volume II, No. 6. 

The views of the Anient given in this Chapter were taken in 1893 
when the crest was at + 47*25 and on it were grooved iron posts 2 feet 
high in which boards could be placed at will. 

The highest floods since the construction of the Anicut have been that 
of July 1882 when the river rose to + 66'-29 or 20'-04 over the then 
crest, and that of 6th August 1896 when the level reached was + 67'*55 
or 18'*30 over the crest as it was then ; the discharge in the former of 
these floods has been calculated at 770,000 cubic feet per second. At 



• This is their height above a depression of 4 inches in which the shatters stand, so 
that the top of the shatters is + 47**5 — 0*33 + 3' = + W'17. 



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Foa:: No. 4251 
Copies 410 



KISTNA ANICUT FF; 



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T FSOM BEZWADA £ND. 



Photo-Print, Snrrrr Office, Mjidrns * SOS. 
from p Lu to taken in l&M bj ilesers. Micholaa & Co. 



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GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 



129 



the extreme left flank of the Anient are the Bezwada ' Under \"ob 
4 Scouring/ Sluices of 15 vents, 6 feet wide and vaiying heights (see 
Plan 7, Volnme II), the ohief object of whioh is to prevent the accumu- 
lation of sand and silt in front of the Eastern Delta Head- Sluices ; 
the relative positions of the two works, which are contiguous and at 
right angles to one another, have enabled this objeot to be attained. 
These " Under-Sluioes " have their sills at + 38, or 9J feet below 
present masonry orest of the Anient, and are fitted with shutters 
actuated by screw-gearing worked from an overhead " trolly " or " trav- 
eller" (see Plan 8, Volume II) whioh oan be run off the work into 
safety when floods pass right over the sluices. 

As stated above, the chief use of these sluices is to prevent accumu- 
lations of silt and sand from interfering with the supply of the Eastern 
Delta, and is not to pass water during floods, when the discharge 
through them can be but a mere small fraction of that over the Anient. 
From the violence of their action when discharging, whioh causes 
alarming vibration in them and the Head-Sluices, and from their effect 
in setting up serious eddies and " swirls " below them when water id 
passing over the Anicut, these Under-Sluioes are sources of great anxiety. 
Their failure would certainly result in the destruction of the adjoin- 
ing Head-Sluices and in extensive breaches between the river and the 
Eastern Delta Main Canal. 

The Head-Sluices of the Eastern Delta adjoin the Under- 
Sluioes and are at right angles to them. They have 15 vents, 6' x 9' 
high (see Plan 9, Volume II), and are fitted with shutters in three 
tiers, aotuated by screws working in screw boxes fixed on a platform 
above flood level, in front of the bridge whioh crosses the work (see 
Plan 10, Volume II). The sills are at + 41 or 6± feet below the 
present masonry crest of the Anicut, 9*17 feet below top of falling 
shutters. 

The Head Lock op the Eastibn Delta is the full length, 150 
feet, now adopted for such works on first-class canals, but is unfortu- 
nately only 16 feet wide instead of 20 feet. It is situated 320 feet 
down a channel, the open head of which is 510 feet up the river from 
the Head-Sluices. This is so far away from the Scouring-Sluioes that it 
is not appreciably affected by them and consequently shoals in front of 
the entrance, and silt in the channel, are frequent hindrances to traffic 
Below the Lock a masonry-lined tail channel, 210 feet in length, leads 
to the Main Canal under the Bridge which spans it immediately 
below its head (see Plan 32, Volume II). Along the sides of the Lock 

ft 



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130 KOTNA DELTA UNO INK BRING HISTORY. 

and its ohannels lie the Distriot Workshops, timber yards, &o., of th* 
Public Works Department. 

Passing now to the works on the right flank of the Aniout : 

The Sitanagram ' Under ' ob * S co u RING Sluicbs ' situated at the 
extreme end of the Aniout are so similar to those at Bezwada that no 
separate description is necessary. 

The Head-Sluices of the Western Delta are 500 feet away 
from the Under-Sluices — an arrangement which makes the effect of the 
latter of little value. These Head-Sluices are of the same size and in 
general arrangements similar to those of the Eastern Delta, but their sills 
are nearly 8 inches lower. It has already been noted in Chapter V that 
in the channel 200 feet below the original Head-Sluioes of the Western 
Delta, a second or auxiliary set has been constructed (see Plan 12, 
Volume II). 

At 230 feet higher up the river than the Head-Sluices is the Head 
Lock, of the same size as that of the Eastern Delta; it is slightly 
recessed from the margin of the river, shoals in which often make access 
to it difficult. 

Passing now to the works in the two seotions of the delta : 

Eastern Delta. 

The water admitted through the Bezwada Head-Sluices has to 
at once turn abruptly to the right to pass into the Main Canal — an 
arrangement necessitated by the cramped nature of the site between the 
steep Bezwada hill, the Town, and the Eiver. In order to provide 
communication between the town and the Aniout, the canal is at its 
immediate head spanned by a Masonry Bridge of three arches of 40 feet 
and one of 16 feet. Two flights of masonry landing steps lead down 
to the canal in connection with the wings of the bridge (see Plan 32, 
Volume II). For nearly its whole length, 53 chains, this canal skirts 
on its left side the main street of the large and rapidly increasing town 
of Bezwada with upwards of 20,000 inhabitants, whilst on its right side 
the canal is separated from the river by only a very narrow strip whioh 
oarries tne great bank due to i he " spoil " from the excavation of the canal. 

For 600 feet the left side of the oanal is lined by a handsome 
masonry " ghftt," with steps, ramps and platforms arranged for the 
convenience of the large boat-traffio, which makes this its terminus or 
its calling place. It is always a busy scene, scores of boats taking in or 
discharging cargo, whilst others are arriving from, or departing for, 
JJadras, Cocanada, Masulipatam, or other places which lie along the 



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Off: No. 4*^0 



KISTNA ANICUT FROfl 



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FROM SITANAQARAM END. 



Photo-Print, Survey Office*, Jfndrna 1898. 
horn photo taken » 13 W b/ Mosara. iuchoias & Co. 



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OENBBlL DESCRIPTION. 131 

East Coast Canal or the various oanals of the Kistna and God&vari 
Deltas. Near its end, where it bifurcates into the Ellore, Byves* and 
Masulipatam Canals, the Main Canal is crossed by the East Coast Rail- 
way bridge of three spans of 100 feet. 

The Elloee Canal on leaving the end of the Main Canal turns 
abruptly to the east and, with a fall of only from 1 to 2 inches a mile, 
runs in an unbroken reach of 40 miles to the large town of Ellore 
(30,000 inhabitants), just beyond whioh is a Look with a drop of 12'*65 
to the Goddvari " Ellore Canal " ; this, together with the Main Canal of the 
God&vari Western Delta, completes the 87 miles of inland navigation 
between the two great rivers, with only one Look besides those whioh 
connect the canals with the rivers themselves. The Ellore Canal has 
been run, with the small fall above mentioned, at as high a level as possible 
and lies above the alluvial tract of the " Delta " ; there is consequently 
but a very small amount of irrigation possible on its left side ; to its 
right however it throws off numerous distributaries which irrigate in all 
some 48,000 acres. The canal starts with a bottom width of 60 feet 
and ends with that of 86 feet, whilst its full supply depth diminishes 
from 8' to 5'*9* (see " Condensed Sections," Volume II). As it runs 
right across the watershed of the upland country, the drainage of 1,174 
square miles have to be passed across it, of which 540 square miles are 
served by the Budam6ru ; that river, as stated in Chapter I, has been the 
oause of frequent damage to the canal, which bars it at an inconvenient 
level. The works to pass the Budamlru waters are spread over 
some 5| miles (from 7 to 12|) and consist of (a) cutting down the 
canal banks for a mile or so to only 1 foot above oanal full supply level, 
so that some of the flood waters may there spill into and out of the canal 
when the masonry works do not prove sufficient; (fi) two large 
Aqueducts (" Budam^ru " and " E^sarapilly ") with an aggregate area of 
vents under the oanal of 1,151 square feet ; (c) three Under-tunnek (or 
small Aqueducts) with openings of 1 85 square feet; (d) one small escape 
(formerly Byves* Canal Head-Sluice) of three vents of 6'x6' each; 
(*) 290 running feet of Aqueduct walls over which exoess water that has 
come into the oanal can flow out of it. 

Between 12 miles 60 chains and 37 miles 40 chains the streams 
whioh have to be passed are individually small and the works provided 
for dealing with them do not require separate notice ; they will be found 
detailed in P.M.Gk No. 446-1., dated 25th May 1891. We then oome 
to the Tamillru, a stream whioh drains some 367 square miles of upland 
»nd at times brings down a very large quantity of water. About a milQ 



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132 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTOBY. 

before it readies the oanal it separates into two branches whioh run on 
either side of Ellore; the western one strikes the oanal at 37 miles 40 
ohains where originally there was an Aqueduct, under whioh part of the 
flood water was supposed to go, whilst the remainder was to spill into 
the oanal over the left wall of the Aqueduct and pass out through 
openings, which could be opened or olosed at will, in the right wall ; 
the levels were suoh that this arrangement never answered, the vents 
under the Aqueduot getting entirely blocked with sand, all the flood- 
waters then ooming into the oanal and blocking it for considerable dis- 
tances with great accumulations of sand and silt. The work was then 
remodelled and made into an "Escape " with vents down to nearly the bed 
of the oanal closed by screw-gearing shutters to be lifted at flood times 
to let the water pass across tfie canal, " stop-gates " being provided in the 
canal above and below the esoape to prevent the flood waters from run- 
ning up and down the canal and silting it up. These arrangements are 
not entirely satisfactory, but the conditions to be dealt with are highly 
diffioult. 

The other branoh of the TamiWru passes round to the east of Ellore 
and falls into the canal just above the Lock which conneots the Kistna 
and G6d&vari Canals. To pass the flood waters which thus enter the 
oanal, out of it, there are provided an " Escape " of eleven vents of 7' 6" 
wide each, and an " Outlet " of eight vents 20 feet eaoh ; here also the 
conditions are such as to preclude an entirely satisfactory arrangement ; 
the canal is frequently so silted up as to impede traffic and parts of the 
town of Ellore are at times flooded. Were it not that the important 
traffic along the canal has to be considered, and that therefore no " super- 
passage" with less than 11 feet clear headway under it is permissible, 
the difficulty might be met by diverting the Tamileru and taking it over 
the end of the Odddvari Canal about a mile east of the Look. 

As regards traffic the Ellore Canal is one of the most important in 
the whole Kistna system, for not only does it serve the local traffio between 
the two large districts of G6ddvari and Kistna, but it forms a portion of 
the through line which extends from Madras to Cocanada, a distanoe 
of 385 miles. 

The traffio on this canal has of course been affected by the East 
Coast Bailway whioh runs alongside it, and was opened in 1893. 
The Chief Engineer for Irrigation in his " Note " with P.M.GK No. 319-L, 
dated 18th Ajfril 1898, states that the goods carried on the oanal fell 
from 170,620 tons in 1893-94 to 87,039 tons in 1896-97, whilst the 
number of passengers who travelled on it fell from 75,754 in 1891-93 



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OBNBBAL DEtCBIPTION. 133 

to 65,925 in 1892-93, in whioh year the railway was opened, and 
has now fallen to 29,062 in 1896-97. It is only surprising that the 
paspenger traffic has not been even more absorbed by the railway. 
Diminution of traffio along this canal is to the good from an irriga- 
tion point of view (see the Extraot from Memorandum given in Chapter 
X, €< Navigation,") and if the railway, which it must be remembered 
is also a " State" work, successfully competes with the canal without 
artificial hindrances being placed in the way of the water-borne traffio, 
so much the better. This subject will be found specially dealt with in 
Chapter No. X devoted to " Navigation." 

T&yvrs' Canal.— This large Irrigation Canal takes off from the end 
of the Main Canal, between the heads of the Ellore and Masulipatam 
Canals and supplies upwards of 45,000 acres of wet crop. Till 1891 there 
was at its immediate head a " Regulator " or Head-Sluice through whioh 
boats could not pass, but in that year this was removed and a new 
Regulator built one mile down the canal, leaving that length of it open 
for the use of boats. The reasons for this ohange are thus given in the 
Inspection Notes of the Chief Engineer for Irrigation in January 1890 : 
" Mr. Arundel, the Collector of the distriot, has suggested that 
the head of this canal for about a mile should be opened for boats to 
lie in and for the construction of wharves. This will entail the moving 
of the head-sluice or " regulator" from its present position to about a 
mile down, the widening of that portion of the canal by 15 feet to provide 
for the disoharge required being carried with the reduced fall, and an 
increase in the size of the proposed bridge over the canal to provide for 
the extra width of the oanal and for two tow-paths ; the Superintending 
Engineer is getting the necessary plans and estimates prepared. The 
work would be of no benefit to irrigation interests and irrigation funds 
should not be called on to contribute towards it or to provide for the 
annual ooet of clearing the extra silt that will be deposited in the reaoh, 
a oost which will be considerable as the clearances will have to be boated 
away because the new " Buokinghampetta " extends along the back of 
the canal banks on both sides. The convenience to the public, especially 
that of Besv&da, whioh will result if the proposals are oarried out, will 
be great, and the value of the town lots in the new petta whioh lie 
close to the oanal, along whioh wharves will doubtless be eventually 
constructed, will be greatly inoreased." 

When this mile of the oanal was thrown open, a Bridge was built 
across it to join the two new parts of the town, and a drawing of this 
will be found in Volume II, Plan 38. 



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iSi KISTNA DELTA BNQINBERINO HISTORY. 

The oost (Bs. 37,700) of the works conneoted with this alteration of 
the Byves' Canal head were not charged to "Irrigation " hut to "Provin- 
cial " and " Canal and Ferry Funds " (see P.M.GL No. 1432 W., dated 
26th May 1891). 

For 12 miles 5 furlongs from the new Regulator the canal runs with 
a bottom width of 90 feet and a depth of 7 feet and a uniform fall of 
7" a mile, to the Komatigunta weir over which the water is dropped 
4' 10". It then runs for 9| miles, giving off numerous branches, to 
where it joins the Pulldru. 

There are two " TJnder-tunnels " under this oanal to pass the drain- 
age of the strip of country between it, the M asulipatam Canal, and the 
upper portion of the Pulleru, to the Uppulur and Chendrayakodu drains. 

The Masulipatam Canal is the third of the large canals which 
branoh off from the end of the Main Canal. It runs South-East for 
almost 50 miles to where it joins tide water near Masulipatam. It is 
divided into five reaches by Locks (first class) and Look-weirs, situated 
at 12 miles 45 chains, 24 miles 50 chains, 37 miles 15 ohains, 43 
miles 8 chains and 49 miles 20 ohains (Delta Mileage), the last Look 
being, of course, tidal. 

The canal runs through some of the riohest lands of the delta to the 
only considerable port of the district and is therefore of great impor- 
tance both as regards its irrigation and its navigation. 

In its first reach, at 4 miles 43 chains (Delta Mileage) is the head 
of the Bank Canal where a Lock (second class) and Head-Sluice (see 
Plans 15 and 28 of Volume II) have been built, and at the end of this 
teach just above Eankipad Look are the two Head-Sluices (" Old " and 
44 New ") for supply of the 4t Pull&ru," the first few miles of the natural 
oourse of which were, as already explained in Chapter I, incorporated in 
this canal. From this first reach also near its end is taken off, to the 
right, the large distributary known as the " Weslside Channel." The 
reach starts with a bottom width of 80 feet (depth 8 feet) which, after the 
Bank Canal off-take, is reduoed to 67 feet (depth 7 feet 6 inches) . So large 
a quantity of water is sent off from this first reach and so comparatively 
small an area has to be irrigated from the canal lower down, that beyond 
Eankipad Lock the canal is no longer of the imposing dimensions of its 
upper reach, but is reduced to a uniform width of 25 feet and depth of 
5 feet. 

In the third reaoh where the canal is approached within a distance of 
half mile by the Pull£ru (at about 16 miles from its head at Eankipad 
Look) is a cut between the two, known as the " Pamarru Junction Canal" 



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G1NBBAL D1SCBIPTI0N. 135 

in whioh there is a look rendered necessary for navigation by the differ- 
ent and varying levels of the Masulipatam Canal and the Pull^ru. 

The PullUbtj, as explained in Chapter I, was a large natural drain- 
age course much, used for irrigation before the Anient was constructed. 
Part of the course of the Pull^ru was incorporated in the Masulipatam 
Canal and at the end of that part where the canal leaves it, at Kankipad, 
it now receives most of its supply of water from the canal through two 
large sluices. It ends at 39 miles 29 chains (D.M.) where it bifurcates 
into the Polrdt and BantumiUi Canals. Nearly 7 miles above their heads 
the " Pamarru Junction Canal " above mentioned, joins the Pull^ru, and 
at 7 miles farther up, the " Eyves' Canal " tails into it. 

The Polbaz Canal from the end of the Pulliru runs north-east for 
26 miles to where it joins the Upput^ru not far below its exit from the 
Collair Lake. The last few miles of this canal traverse the " Kaldindi 
plain/' which but a few years ago was a barren tract of brackish soil, 
dotted here and there with patches of prickly-pear and coarse herbage 
on which grazed large herds of antelope ; it is now in the irrigation 
season a wide expanse of flourishing rice crops. The canal is navigable 
throughout and has three locks (second class)— one at its head, another at 
16| miles along its course, and the third into the Upput£ru, along which 
boats can pass to and from any of the three locks (" Yel6rpad," " Bhima- 
varam," "Mogultur") by whioh the Q-6ddvari system of Navigable 
canals is also brought into communication with that tidal river. 

No drainage has to cross this canal ; that to the north of it running 
to the Collair Lake, and that to the south of it, between it and the 
BantumiUi Canal, falling into the Upputlru. 

The Bantumilli Canal is the southern of the two canals which 
branch off from the end of the Pulliru. It runs nearly due east for 26 
miles to the Upput£ru which it joins by the Lakshmip6ram Look nearly 
opposite where the navigation of the G6d4vari Bhimavaram Canal 
oomes into that river, at about half way between the ends of the GhSdd- 
vari Akid and Narasapur Canals. Besides its tidal lock the Bantu- 
miUi Canal has a lock at its head and another 5 J miles further along 
its course. The lower part of the canal, like that of the Polr&z, runs 
through salt plains and swamps which but a few years ago were quite 
uncultivated, but are now covered with crops. 

The Lakshmiptiram Lock was built in 1892 and 1893 ; its founda- 
tions in tidal mud gave muoh trouble ; a plan of it will be found in 
Volume II, No. 18. 



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136 



KI8TNA D1LTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 



The Bank Canal, as already stated, has its head on the Jfasuli- 
patam Canal at 4 miles 43 ohains (D.M.). About 13 miles of 
this canal were exoavated, and it was intended that it should be eon* 
tinued along the bank of the river as far as the Pulligadde branch, and 
eventually taken over that flood-channel of the river into the Divi 
Island bj^n aqueduct, in the same way that the GhSddvari Central Delta 
Ghinnaram Canal was carried into the Polaram Island (see " Engi- 
neering "Works of the G6d4vari Delta," Chapter VI). The experience of 
higher floods than previously known have shown that the levels are such 
that this method of crossing the Pulligadde is not practicable and that if 
the canal water is ever taken into Divi Island, it must be by an inverted 
syphon tunnel, or pipes, under the river bed. For the present even the 
excavated portion of the canal is unused, and there is no present intention 
of opening it, the Superintending Engineer being of opinion that it " is 
decidedly inadvisable to bring it into use till the river margin has grown 
considerably " (Extract from Letter N., dated 8th September 1898, of 
Chief Engineer for Irrigation). 

The following list gives in a tabulated form some of the information 
about the canals above dealt with, and in Volume II will be found 
oondensed sections of them : — 

List of Canals cloned under Main- Head (2) Main Canal* and Branches — 
Eastern Section of the Delta. 



Distance of 










Areas irrigated 


Head of 




i ~.~.~i. 






in 1897-98. 


Canal from 


Names of Canals. 


Liengtns oi 


Remarks. 










Head of 




Can 


OrlB. 




First 


Second 


Delta. 










crop. 


crop. 


MLS. 


CHB. 




MLS. 


CUS. 




ACRES. 


ACRES. 


••• 


... 


Main 




61 








... 


45 


Ellobe 


39 


60 


Head on Main 
Canal. 


48,166 


82 


... 


61 


Rtves' 


22 


60 


Head on Main 
Canal (only 1 mile 
navigable). 


45,467 


11 


... 


61 


Masulipatam ... 


49 


7 


Head on Main 
Canal. 


42,667 


6 


4 


43 


Bank 






Head on Masnli- 
patam Canal 
(constrnotion in 
abeyanoe). 






12 


46 


PuLLimu 


26 


64 


Head on Masnlipa- 
tarn Canal ; only 
7 miles 30 chains, 
including Pamar- 
rn Junction, 
navigable. 


116,783 


15 


89 


29 


PoLBiz 


26 


40 


Head on PalleYu. 


26,465 


96 


39 


29 


Bantumilli 

Total ... 


26 


15 


Do. do. ... 
Only 150 ;miles 43 


21,524 


264 
423 


191 


57 


301,072 












chains navigable. 







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GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 137 

Drainage op the Eastern Delta.— The drainage of this section of 
the delta (exclusive of Divi Island which does not as yet come within 
the scope of the irrigation works) may be considered as divided into four 
main portions, viz. : — 

1. Between the Ellore Canal, the Masulipatam Canal Head, the 
Pull^ru, and the Polrdz, Canals. 

2. Between the Polr&z and Bantumilli Canals. 

3. Between the Bantumilli Canal, the lower portion of the Masu- 
lipatam Canal, and the Sea. 

4. Between the Pull^ru and the Eiver. 
Portion No. 1 is served by — 

(«) The BudamSru, the natural river which, as already stated, 
crosses the Ellore Canal by various works between 7 and 11 miles 
(D.M.) and falls into the Collair Lake at its south-west corner. The 
Budam^ru has been considerably improved in its lower portions which 
receive several affluents between the Canal and the Lake. The drainage 
of the small piece of country between the heads of the "Eyves* " and 
"Masulipatam " Canals is brought to the Budam^ru by the " Uppulur " 
Under-tunnel under the Eyves' Canal, at 11 miles 17 chains (D.M.). 

(6) The " Chendrayakodu ". — This was originally one of the 
branches which carried water to various tanks from the Pullfru when 
that natural drainage was used for irrigation purposes, as explained in 
Chapter I. When the " Completion Project " was prepared, the Chen- 
drayakodu ended in the Tamersa tank, but the arrangements then 
provided for, and since carried out, at a cost of Es. 75,872, devoted the 
Chendrayakodu exclusively to drainage purposes and carried it on to 
the Collair Lake. Tba drainage of the land between the Masulipatam 
and Eyves' Canal is brought to this drain by an Under-tunnel under 
the latter canal. 

(c) The " Old PolrIz-xodu ".—This was another branch of the 
Pull&ru ; it has been extensively improved at a cost of Es. 86,474, and 
carries to the Collair the surplus waters of the tract between the Chen- 
drayakodu affluents and the Polrdz Canal. 

Portion No. 2 is of comparatively small area and its surplus waters 
are carried to the Upput6ru by — 

(a) The Lin gala Drain along the right side of the Polrdz Canal, 

(b) The Pedda-komileru, and 

(c) The Peddalanka ; and some minor drains. 

The drainage of Portion No. 3 finds its way to the Gokavaram and 
other tidal creeks by many drainage channels, the chief of which is the 



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138 KlSTNA DELTA ENG IN EBBING HISTORY. 

Lazzabanda Dbain, ou the improvement of which Bs. 1,13,964 have 
been spent. 

Of Portion No. 4 the chief drain is the Kannikala-maduqu, in the 
lower portion of its course known as the " Dayapukalwa," which start- 
ing from between the Bank Canal Head and the Masulipatam Canal, 
winds about till it falls into the tidal creeks in connection with the 
Fulligadda branch of the river and the Masulipatam bay. Its chief 
affluents are the Bhimanadi and Agaxodu ; into the latter flows the 
Inampudi Drain, which brings under the Masulipatam Canal, at 28 miles 
25 chains, the drainage of the land lying between that canal and the 
Pulltfru above the Pamarru Junction Canal. 

The Eiver is embanked through this section of the Delta to the 

. . Puligadda branch, and the Divi Island is embanked 

for another 13 miles along the main river, and for 

10 miles along the branch. Above the Delta the embankment on the 

left side of the Eiver extends to Ibrahampatam, about 8 miles from 

JJezwada. + 

"Western Delta. 

The Main Canal into which water is passed through the Head- 
Sluices already described under " Head-works" runs nearly due south 
for 13 miles. It is an imposing stream carrying at times nearly 4,000 
cubic feet of water per second, upwards of five times the ordinary sum- 
mer discharge of the Thames at Staines. Its bottom width is 230 
feet for 7| miles to the head of the Bank Canal, and thence onwards 170 
feet. J?or almost the whole of its length, except where straight cuts 
have been made, the Main Canal has followed, the course of the old 
Tungabhadra, the natural drainage stream into which, in old pre-anicut 
days, a cut was made from the river for irrigation purposes (see Chapter 
I). At 7 J furlongs from the head the canal is crossed by the East Coast 
Jfcailway skew girder bridge of four spans of 70 feet, on screw-piles. 

The direct irrigation from the Main Canal is small, the ultimate 
expected being 10,000 acres. 

The Bank Canal takes off from the Main Canal at 7 miles 58 chains, 
with a second-class Lock and a Head-Sluice. The canal t is 46 miles 
long and for almost all that distance runs near the river, the flood bank 
of which has been formed to a great extent by the spoil from the canal 
excavation. The canal is divided into four reaches by the following 
Locks (second class) and their weirs: (1) Kolltir 28 miles 16 chains 
(D.M.), (2) Vellat6r, 33 miles 54 chains, (3) Mortota, 45 miles 43 chains ; 



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GENERAL DESCRIPTION. l3d 

below the last of these the canal continues navigable for about 8 miles 
and then sends on a distributary, known as the Eazu Channel, for another 
5 miles along the back of the river bank. The navigation along this 
canal is small, but its irrigation is considerable, amounting to 56,234 acres 
in 1897-98, the " ultimate expected " being no less than 95,000 acres, 
comprising all the country between the canal and the E^palle drains. 

This canal, like all others in the G6dAvari and Kistna Deltas whioh 
run close to the rivers, is a source of great trouble on account of the 
dangers to which it is subjected by the ' sets,' and encroachments of the 
river* 

The temptation to take canals close along tho edges of the rivers has 
been irresistible, because from such a position it is easy to command the 
considerable strip of exceptionally rich land which always slopes away 
from the margins of deltaic rivers to the first inland drainage, and also 
because part of the earth from the excavation of the canals can be used 
in making the river embankments along them. The cost of such canals, 
therefore, at first appears small, but in the long run they are generally 
exceptionally costly, because of the extensive and expensive protection 
which has to be resorted to in places to prevent their being washed away 
by river encroachments, and because of the costly diversions, through 
very valuable lands, which have to be made when such protection proves 
of no avail. The danger from river encroachment on a c Bank ' Canal is 
not infrequently increased by percolation and leakage from itself ; these 
hasten on the caving in of the river margin by washing out at the face 
of it* scarp the thin layers of nearly pure sand, so generally found inter- 
spersed with the firmer deposits for some distance back from the edges of 
deltaic rivers. 

The principal diversions which of late years have had to be made on 
this canal, on account of encroachments of the river, are, that near Val- 
labhapuram, about 3,600 feet long, which oost some Bs. 6,000, and that 
near Penumudi, nearly 3 miles long, whioh cost nearly a quarter of a lakh 
of rupees. 

The Commamur Canal takes off from the end of the Main Canal at 
12 miles and runs south-west for 58 J miles to Peddaganjam where it 
joins the " Buckingham " (East-Coast) Canal, at tie 196 miles from 
Madras. 

The Commamur Canal is divided into five teaches by the following 
Looks (first class) and Weirs t— 

■*■ * ■ ' ■ ■ r i ■ i *— » 

• 89$ • the Engineering Works of the G6di?ari Delta,' Chapter VIII, 



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140 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

(1) Commamtir, at head of Canal. 

(2) Jaggerlamudi, at 20 miles 73 chains (Delta mileage). 

(3) Kolimerla, „ 31 „ 54 „ ,, 

(4) Nallamada, ,, 43 „ 36 ,, ,, 

(5) Santaravtir, ,,59 ,, 50 ,, ,, 

(6) Pedda Ganjara, „ 70 ,, 21 „ This is the terminal lock by 
which Navigation passes to and from the " Buckingham Canal." 

As the Commamur Canal runs along the outskirts of the deltaic lands, 
it has little irrigation on its right side, but on its left, east, side it supplies 
a large area lying between it and the Tungabhadra and Bomperu 
drains — an area which in 1897-98 amounted to 91,162 acres and is 
expected to eventually rise to 130,000 acres. 

For about 8 miles from its head, as far as the crossing of the Guntur 
Nalla, the canal occupies the course of the old Tungabhadra, the upper 
portion of which was, as already stated, taken into the Main Canal. 
From that point, 20 miles 15 chains, D.M. the canal runs right athwart 
the watershed of some 1,386 square miles, and for a considerable part of 
its length at such a level that there is great difficulty in getting the 
drainage across it. Tho works constructed for the purpose are given in 
the subjoined statement (page 141), on which is noted what lengths of 
bank have been lowered or entirely removed to allow water to pass freely 
into and out of the canal. 

The masonry tforks given in this statement are sufficient to pass 
the heaviest ordinary falls of rain, but occasionally cyclonic downpours 
gorge the streams and cover the surface of the country with water ; 
this before the canal existed used to find its way quietly to the sea, 
or rather to the Bompera swamp. The conditions, however, became 
very different when the canal with continuous embankments, much of 
them due to " spoil " from excavation, was carried as a bar across the 
country, causing the excessive flood waters to head up till they broke in 
destructive torrents across the canal, filling it with silt in places and at 
others tearing great chasms through it, stopping irrigation and naviga- 
tion for weeks at a time. After many years of such trouble and trying 
to fight the floods on the old lines, Colonel (now General) Mullins, E.E., 
Chief Engineer for Irrigation, adopted the system of so adjusting the 
levels of the various reaches of the canal as to bring the water surface 
as near ground level as possible, providing flush inlet and outlet walls 
of great length and removing as much of the right bank as practicable, 
thus allowing the water which used to flow over the surface of the land 
to still do so, and to cross the canal with little increase of velocity. The 
system has proved most successful, and the canal is now seldom blocked, 
or navigation stopped, for many hours at a time. 



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GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 



141 



Works for passing Drainage -across the Commamur Canal, from 20 
miles 15 chains to end. 



Point at which drain- 
age crosses the 
canal (Delta Mile- 
age). 


si 
3-° 


Description of works. 


Aqueducts 

and under- 

tunnels. 


In- 
lets. 


Outlets, 
weirs and 

walls. 


Remarks, 


Is 

ill 
5 


Si 
11 






it 

c ft , 

III 

£9C 


1 


2 


s 


4 


6 


7 


B 


9 


10 


MS. 


ch. 














FEET. 




20 
20 
31 


15 
19 

42 


M 


Guntiir Nalla new under- 

tunnel. 
Guntiir Xalla old under- 

tunnel. 

Kol I i nit rla aqueduct 


183*0 
121*0 
278 


3*00 
3*00 
2*08 




36*00 


3*20 




31 
33 


65 
61 


!• IBS- 


Kollimerla inlet and 

outlet. 
Poudrapad Burplus weir. 






870 


870 
28*0 


20 

2*70 




33 


68 


1 


Old inlet 




... 


60 




... 




36 


22 


251 


Nakkavagu outlet... 








2,800 


2*0 


Another aqueduct has been 
proposed here. 

Besides the masonry works 
hero shown, the right bank 
has been removed from 36th 

„ to 45 J miles (except for short 
lengths near masonry 
works) allowing Hood 
waters to freely enter the 
canal. 


40 

to 

40 

a 

41 


9 
39 
77 

3 
12 


- 428- 


Appapuram outlet 

Nallamada old outlets ... 

Old Nallamada surplus 

sluices. 
New Nallamada surplus 

sluices. 
Nallamada new outlet ... 






-• 


1,800 

2,150 
150 

90 

1,800 


2*50 
2 
6*67 
4*07 
200 


45 


19 


1 


Murkondapad outlet 


v.. 






2,700 


1*00 




45 


62 




Sakikalva outlet ... 








880 


2*00 




45 
47 
40 


77 

4 


> 200^ 


Do. aqueduct 

Inlet 

Kunkalamarru outlet ... 


265*2 


0*44 


60 


500 


2*00 


From 46 ms. 13 oh. to 46 ms. 

40 rh., no right bank. 
From 46 ms. 43 ch. to 49 ms, 

10 ch., no right bank. 


49 


14 




Do. inlet 






160 








49 
50 
51 


14 
27 
45 


}-i 


. Parch urragu surplus 
sluices. 
Knrenchedu outlet 

Do, aqueduct ... 


132-6 


3*00 




96 
1,002 


4*G 
2*00 


From 49 ms. 62 ch. to 49; ms. 

70 eh., no right bank. 
From 49 ms. 70 ch. to 5ft ms. 

20 ch., right bank, 1 foot high. 


54 
55 


70 
53 


18 1 


Svverna old outlet 
Do. outlet and inlet. 






600 


200 
600 


1*00 
200 


From 54 ms. 27 ch, to 54. ms. 
72 ch., right bank, 1 foot high. 


55 


65 


J I 


Do. aqueduct 


88*4 


•67 










58 


21 


1 


Santaravur old outlet ... 








95 


2*00 




58 
59 


63 
26 


> 79< 
1 


Allcru surplus sluices ... 
Santaravur outlet 








08 

806 


6*22 
2*00 




69 


26 


J 


Do. inlet 






67 








02 


28 


] 


Apperu inlet 




... 


450 








62 


40 


29- 


Do. inlet and outlet. 






185 


185 


2*00 




62 


47 


J 


. Do. do. 






600 


600 


2*00 




06 
68 


77 
49 


90 
20 


Firangidibba outlet and 

inlet. 
Uppukondur aqueduct ... 


760 


2*00 


2,000 


2,000 


2*00 


From 66 ms. to 67 ms. 16 ch„ 
right bank, 1 foot high. 



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142 kistna Delta engineering history. 

The Commamfir Canal, like the Ellore Canal, forms one of the links 
in the chain of canals which provides inland water communication 
between Madras and Cocanada. The traffic along it is considerable, the 
numbers of lockages through its head and tail locks in 1 896-97 having 
been — 

UP. DOWN. 

Commamur Lock 4,135 4,191 

Pedda Ganj&m Lock 4,272 4,250 

The greater part of the^ Singar^ni coal which reaches Madras is 
carried there along the canal and the Buckingham Canal ; the quantity 
was, in 1896-97, 33,325 tons. 

The Nizampatam Canal has its head at the extreme end of the Main 
canal and runs nearly due south for rather more than 28 miles to where 
it locks into the large tidal creek on which stands Nizampatam, at 
about 3 miles in a direct line from that town, but some 8 miles by the 
windings of the creek. 

The canal runs along the slightly elevated ridge between the Repalle 
and Tungabhadra drains, and is therefore not troubled with cross 
drainage. 

The irrigation from it (62,447 acres in 1897-98) between the two 
drains mentioned, is almost all supplied by two large distributaries, 
known as the ' east ' and * west ' side channels, taking off from above the 
head look, the former oarrying approximately 460 and the latter 280 

CU8€C8. 

The navigation along this canal is not large ; * it is provided for by 
the following locks (Second class), viz. : — 

At the head, " Duggirala ", with weir. 
,, 22 miles (D.M.) " Kuchiptidi,"'] without weirs, scarcely 



„ 31 miles 24 chains 


a 


" Intnr," V any water having to be 


,, 36 ,, 59 „ 


tt 


" Nallavada," J passed on for irrigation. 


41 7 


a 


Tidal, with surplus weir. 



The following list gives in a tabulated form some of the informa- 
tion about the canals above dealt with, and in Vol. II will be found 
" condensed sections " of them : — 



• In 1896-97, Lockages Up 1,940; down 1,886* 



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GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 



148 



List of Oanals clotted under Main Head " (2) Main Candle and 
Branches" Western Section of the Delta. 



Distance of 

Head of 
Canal from 


Names of Canals. 


Lengths of 


Remarks. 


Areas irrigated 
in 1897-98. 


Head of 
Delta. 




Acres. 


CD 


a 




CO 

1 


CO 

a 
*S 


s 

CD 


t 

a 


1 

12 
13 


58 


Main 

Bank 

COMMAMt^R 
NlZAMPATAM 

Total ... 


13 

46 

58 
28 


4 

20 

7 


Head on Main 
Canal. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

All navigable 


9,007 
56,234 

91,162 
62,447 


19 

3 

6 


145 


31 


218,850 


28 



Drainage op the "Western Delta. — The drainage of this section 
of the delta divides itself naturally into three main portions, viz. : — 

(1) Between the Bank and Nizampatam canals. 

(2) Between the Nizampatam canal and the Nallamada Drain, 

which crosses the Commamur oanal at 41 miles. 

(3) All south and west of No. 2. 
Th* first portion is served by — 

(a) The " E£palle Main Drain ", which starting in the angle 
between the Main and Bank canals runs for about 33 miles (including 
its upper feeder the Kuohipudi drain) till it falls into the tidal creek 
near Nizampatam, receiving many affluents on its way. Es. 2,55,013 
have been spent on this drain to end of 1897-98, a large portion of it 
on " straight cuts ", and further improvements are contemplated. 

(J) The Bhattiprole Drain. — This begins from near 20 miles 
(D.M.) of the Bank canal and after a oourse of upwards of 38 miles 
falls into a tidal creek near Adavaladivi. It has only one affluent of any 
size, the " Jagajeru ". 

No improvements have been carried out. 

(c) The Peddapalli Drain, which runs for about 4 miles near 
the east side of the Nizampatam Canal, and falls into the tidal creek 
just below the terminal lock. This drain has been much improved at a 
cost, to date, of Es. 15,513. 



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144 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

The second portion is served by the Tonghabhadra, the chief affluents 
of which are (a) the Tenali drain which serves the country between the 
Nizampatam Canal and the Tunghabhadra itself, (b) the KolimerIa y and 
(c) the NaUamada ; the two last besides serving the lands 1 op the right side 
of the Commamfir Canal between 31 and 41 miles (D.M.), carry the 
upland drainage of some 800 square miles which there crosses the canal. 

It has already been explained how the upper portion of the old Tun- 
ghabhadra was incorporated in the Main and Commamdr Canals, and the 
drain may be said to now commence where the GhintAr Nulla crosses the 
Commamur Canal in the 21st mile (D.M .), bringing down the drainage 
of 100 square miles of uplands. From there the Tunghabhadra has a 
course of about 29 miles to the tidal creek west of Nizampatam, into 
which it discharges the surplus waters of some 1,140 square miles, 
including the upland drainages above mentioned. 

For this drain and its affluents, Es. 6,15,191 were provided in the 
" Project " (see Statement in Chapter VI), of which Es. 3,65,672 have 
been actually spent, chiefly, as regards the main drain itself, on " straight- 
cuts " which have not proved entirely satisfactory. 

The Tunghabhadra has still a dam across it (at about 1 2 miles 
along its course) to raise its water for irrigation, a relic of the vicious 
old system referred to in Chapters I and VI [I, but this will be soon 
superseded and the drain left to its proper duties. 

The main drainage line of the third portion is the Romp£gu. As 
explained in Chapter I, this is really a broad swamp lying at the back of 
the sea-coast sand ridge from near B&patla to the Chinna-Ganjdm tidal 
creek, a distance of about 26 miles. Into this comes the upland drainage 
of some 480 square miles brought down by the Sakikalwi, Pachurvagu, 
Stocrna, AlMru, App&u, EmiUru, and other minor streams which cross the 
Commamfir Canal by various works. 

Es. 1,30,333 have been spent on this drain, chiefly in making a new 
cut to take to the Bdpatla creek some of the drainage which used to fall 
into the Eomperu near its northern end, and find its way along the 
swamp for nearly its whole length to the Chinna-Granjdm creek. 

The Eiver is embanked through this section of the delta for 52£ miles 
to Adivipalem, and an embankment is carried for a mile above the anicut 
to the UndaviUi Hill. 



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( 1« ) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

VARIOUS INFORMATION AS TO MATERIALS, 
DESIGN, ETC., OF WORKS. 

Earth-work — Canals and Channels. 

Ik the Kistna as in the GkSdAvari anicut system, desire for cheapness 
and rapidity of execution led at first to the use of old native channels 
and natural water-courses for taking anicut water to various parts of 
the delta. Now, nothing can be more certain than the inadvisability 
of attempting in a Delta country to use the natural drainages for other 
than their legitimate duty, and the adoption for the purposes of distri- 
bution of old channels faulty in alignment, gradient, section, and every 
particular, though at first apparently an economical course has, in the 
long run, proved anything but satisfactory. On this subject Colonel 
Baird Smith, E.E., who was sent in 1853 by the Government of India 
to visit the works, made * the following remarks : — 

" The coincidence with pre-existing lines common to both the Ellore and 
Masulipatam channels probably originates in economical considerations, 
I admit the force of these .... But the contempt for directness of 
course, and economy of slope, which characterize suoh anicut works, is 
generally so marked as to make the ultimate economy of adhering to them 
very questionable indeed .... I take the opportunity of recording 
my opinion to be against the use of tortuous natural, or old artificial, lines, 
even when the saving of expense thereby may be very clear unless that 
saving materially exceeds the various sources of loss, not merely to Gov- 
ernment, but to the irrigating community, having their origin in a system 
which praotically throws the water into holes from whence, to do its maxi- 
mum of work, it must be presently got out again. By carrying compact 
channels along the highest levels, and in the most direct courses compatible 
with local necessities, economy of repairs, of water, of labor by the agricul- 
turist in the distribution by detail over his fields, and of land occupied, is 
combined with extension to its utmost of the area of irrigation ; and such 
manifest advantages should never be abandoned on considerations of 
economy of money, which, however specious at first sight, will, unless great 
caution be used, turn out in the end to be utterly hollow and unsubstantial.' 1 

H it ■ ■ ' .■■»■■■■■■ . 

* See his " Irrigation in the Madras Provinoe." 



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146 KlSTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

Canals and Distributaries are now, and have for a long time past 
been, laid out on scientific principles, and care is taken not to use the 
natural drainage courses for other than their proper purposes. In 
designing channels the formula used up to about 1879, was that known 
as ' Du BuaPs,' but since then the more accurate formula and coefficients 
of Bazin have been adopted, viz., V=c. y/ r.s. in which 

F= velocity in feet per second. 

r.=Hydraulic * radius,' or ' hydraulic mean depth/ in feet. 

*.=Fall in unity, of surface. 

C= A variable coefficient, which for earthern channels, is arrived 

at from the formula. 

1 



C = 



y 0-00008534 /,«+ 4'1\ 



The Side slopes generally adopted for earthwork in the Delta are 14 
(base) to 1 (height). 

Masonry — and Masonry Works. 

Brickwork has been little used in the Delta works except for 
arohes ; almost all the works have been constructed of Concrete and 
Bubble Masonry with, in the more important works, Ashlar facings, 
quoins, and copings. 

Concrete*— -Foundations are, as a rule, platforms of oonorete of 
various thicknesses according to the nature of the soil and the weight of 
the superincumbent work. The concrete is generally composed of 3 
ports, by measurement, of stone, broken to 2-inch gauge, and 1 part 
mortar, laid and rammed in layers of about 6 inohes thiok ; the mortar 
is usually composed wherever the foundations are wet, and often also in 
the superstructure, of 1 part slaked lime, 2 parts of river sand and 
from i to 1 part of finely ground brick dust, known in India as ' surki ' ; 
the addition of the * surki, 9 makes the mortar eminently hydraulic 

The Stone used is almost and entirely from the Bezwada and Sita- 
nagarum quarries thus described in Vol. XVI, of * Memoirs of the 
Geological Survey of India.' " This gneiss is a rather fine-grained 
quartzo-micaoeous felspathio schist .... It weathers consider- 
ably at the surface and becomes there of a powdery texture, or else 
ooats itself with a close highly polished surface like serpentine in 
appearance." 

Locks.— There are in the Kistna Delta, as in the GhSddvari, two 
0tondard sizes of Looks, viz., « First ' and ' Seoond ' olass. The 



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INFORMATION AS TO MATERIALS, ETC. 147 

•hamber of the former is 150' x 29', that of the latter 105' x 15'. 
The following are the canals considered 'First olass' and therefore 
provided with the larger sized Locks. 

Eastern Delta *.— Main, Ellore, and Masulipatam Canals. 
Western Delta *.— Main and Commamur Canals. 

Inoluding the c Head Locks ' there are in the whole system 13 Looks 
of the first class and 17 of the second class — plans of two first class and 
five second class Locks will be found in Vol. II. 

"Weirs.— There are 15 Look-Weirs, and several Surplus-Weirs 
to relieve the canals of excess water. These works have, as a rule, been 
designed with a length capable of discharging the maximum required, 
with a depth of from 2 J to 3 feet passing over the crest, on whioh are 
wooden shutters of that height, lifted or lowered at will by sorew- 
gearing. Nine feet has been found a convenient length for such 
shutters. 

The form of Weir adopted has wisely been that with a vertioal over- 
fall. In the earlier works of the kind, the fall was on to a horizontal 
floor of large stone, but in subsequent works a c water-cushion 1 has always 
been provided. The system of forming the cushion floors of Weirs simply 
of concrete, whioh has proved so successful in the GMd&vari Delta (see 
* Weirs,' Chapter IX of the " GtSddvari Delta Engineering History "), 
has not been generally adopted in the Kistna, nor has so much 
attention been devoted to the form of the cushion walls. 

The superiority of a vertical overfall for suoh Weirs has been shown 
by the little trouble the Gh5ddvari and Kistna Canal- Weirs have given 
compared with that whioh resulted on the Ganges Canal from the 
adoption there of the ' Ogee 9 form, with referenoe to which Mr. Buokley, 
in his exoellent book ' Irrigation Works in India,' says : " These * Ogee ' 
falls have given endless trouble. The velocity increased of course as the 
water ran down the ' Ogee * and the friotion did as much damage as the 
shook would have caused, and the velocity was so great that a standing 
wave was created below the fall, and the washing of the banks was 
oonsiderable.'L 

Plans of two Look- Weirs and one Surplus- Weir will be found in 
Volume II. 

Aqueducts.— There is not in the Kistna system any aqueduct of 
a size comparable with the Gunnaram aqueduct over the Vainat^yam 
branch of the G-oddvari (see Chapter VI, " G6d&vari Delta Engineering 

• The Head Looks are only 1G feet wide, 



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148 K18TNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

History "), but there are many over minor streams and channels, and 
plans of four of these will be found in Volume II. 

Irrigation Sluices.— Of sluices at the heads of Irrigation Distri- 
butaries there are nearly 400 in the Kistna Delta System. All the 
modern ones are fitted with shutters worked by screw- gearing by which 
oaref ul regulation is seoured, and in most of the more recent sluioes the 
system has been adopted of widening out from behind the shutters to 
reduoe the velocity of the water as it issues into the channel and so lessen 
the wear and tear on banks and bed. 

Bridges.— The provision of Bridges over Canals and Channels is 
small. Over the larger canals there are only 26 Bridges, besides those 
provided at most of the Locks. This has arisen from the fact that when 
,the works were undertaken, there was soarcely a made-road in the 
Delta, and the people were accustomed to wade through the streams and 
water-courses which crossed their pathways, or when the water was too 
deep for wading, to use ' dug-outs,' or * rafts ' supported on hollowed-out 
palmyra trunks, locally known as * Sangadies ; ' * of suoh * Sangadies ' for 
orossing the Canals there are many, a few of them provided by Govern- 
ment, but most belonging to villagers and worked on Government permit. 
At the more important crossings of large Canals and drains Government 
maintains 143 ferry-boats, locally known as ' balla-kats 9 f which can 
carry carts and oattle. 

The following are the rules for Headway, fyc, for Bridges over the 
Navigable Canals : — 

" First- Class Lint* of Navigation. 

11 First — If there be more than one arch, the arohes to be not less than 
30 feet span, or 25 feet exclusive of a 5 feet tow-path. If there be but one 
arch, 40 feet to be minimum span. 

" Second — The clear headway under the arch or arches should give a 
rectangle 12 feet wide and not less than 1 1 feet above full supply or 
ordinary flood level. 

" Third — The waterway of canal should not be contracted so as to 
produce a velocity in excess of 15 feet a second." 

" Second-Class Lines of Navigation. 

"First— -If there be more than one arch, the arches to be not less than 
27J feet span, or 23 feet exclusive of a 4} feet tow-path. For a single arch 
bridge, 30 feet to be the minimum span. 

• Telugn San = together, katte = tie or fasten, 
t Do. Balla = a plank, katte = tie or fatten. 



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INFORMATION AS TO MATERIALS, ETC. 149 

" Second — The clear headway under the arch or arches should give a 
rectangle 10 feet wide and not less than 9$ feet high above full supply or 
ordinary flood level. 

"Third— The waterway of canal should not be contracted so as to 
produce a velocity of more than 1*5 feet a second." 

As for the smaller Irrigation Channels, they aro rarely provided with 
bridges or boats ; they have to be waded across. This, however, it must 
be remembered, is no great inoonvenienoe in a warm olimate where shoes 
and stockings are not worn, and the usual lower single garment seldom 
extends below the knee, and is easily lifted. 



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( 150 ) 

CHAPTER IX. 

IRRIGATION. 

Ibbigation is the primary object of the Kistna Aniout and Delta 
Works, the Navigation which has been oombined 

Irrigation, the ^h jj being merely an adjunct, though by no 

primary olgeet ef the 
Anient and Canals. means an unimportant one. Year by year the 

Irrigation covers with unfailing crops nearly 800 
square miles of country, two-thirds of which but for it would be un- 
productive waste with only a few patches here and there of cultivation 
at the mercy of uncertain rains. The District is thus not only saved 
from the famines which used to ravage it, but is also enabled to send 
large quantities of food-grains to less favoured regions. 

The first attempt to estimate the probable area of irrigation and the 

amount of direct money returns from the proposed 

Anticipated and wor t 8 will be found in Captain Lake's report of 
actual artas of irri- n , _ . - Q ,~ , ., ,. . . , . 

-ation. 3rd July 1847 and its appendioes printed in 

Chapter II. 
The anticipated areas there given are — 

AOBBS. 

in the Ghintdr District (now '• Western Delta ") . . 482,961 
in the Masulipatam District (now " Eastern Delta") 564,824 



Total .. 1,047,785 



and the annual direot returns at Bs. 46,19,148. 

The Committee, whose report has been given on pages 30 to 48, 
did not, however, endorse these extravagant anticipations, but gave the 
area likely to be irrigated as only — 

▲CBSS. 

in the Ghintlir District # 125,038 

in the Masulipatam District 118,818 

Total . . 243,856 



• Taking the area of " waste land in liepally " to be irrigated, at 13,000 acres. 



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IftRIGATIOK. 151 

and the probable direct annual returns, to be arrived at in 4 years, as 
Bs. 7,32,059/ 

The Committee, however, was evidently loath to quite give up the 
brilliant prospect which had been placed before it, and remarked in 
paragraph 50 of its report that the anicut " will command in Guntoor 
about half a million of acres, and the same in Masulipatam (of Govern- 
ment and other lands) exolusive of Deevy, and the supply of water 
of this tract will be most abundant during the season of cultivation of 
paddy, and very considerable even in the lowest state of the river, so 
that there is every reason to believe that the whole will eventually be 
cultivated." 

The more moderate anticipation of the Committee itself as to the 
area that would be irrigated was realized, not indeed in the 4 ^ears, 
but in 20 from the completion of the anicut (see " Statement showing 
areas irrigated, Appendix III "). 

When, in 1881, the "Completion Project" was submitted to the 
Secretary of State (see Chapter VI) the irrigation had risen to nearly 
300,000 acres and the forecast then made of the ultimate areas was — 

ACBBS. 

for the Eastern Delta . . 270,000 

for the Western Delta 200,000 



Total . . 470,000 



and in a revised forecast of 1885 for 20 years, the "final ultimate^ " to 

be reached in 1902-3, is given as 475,000 acres. 

When the " Project " works were put in hand 
their effect soon became apparent and the irrigation 
rapidly advanced till in 10 years t it exceeded the 
' ultimate ' anticipated in each division of the Delta 
and has now, after considerable variations, reaohed 
the large area of 519,922 acres. 

It will thus be seen that since the so-called " Completion " Works 

were undertaken there has been an increase in 

Increase of irrigated irrigation of some 70 per cent., and the question 

naturally suggests itself, will the increase continue 

to any considerable extent ? That the suitable area still available 

would admit of this is undoubted, and the answer, therefore, depends 



fin 1891-92. 


Battern 




division . 


.. 274,424 


Western 




division 


.. 206,804 


Total . 


.. 480,728 



* See paragraphs 8 to 18 and Appendices A and B of the Committee's Report. 



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152 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTOBY. 

on the sufficiency of water. The total quantity of water brought down 
the river in every year, or even that in every irrigation season, is 
certainly much in exoess of what would suffice for every acre com- 
manded, but it must be remembered, that now by far the greater part 
of the water necessarily passes in floods over the anient and flows use- 
lessly to the sea, whilst not infrequently towards the end of the irriga- 
tion season the river falls below the level required to give a full supply, 
under existing arrangements, even to the area already reached ; e.g., in 
his letter/No. 593, 12th September 1898, the Superintending Engineer, 
2nd Circle, says that in November 1896 : " The water was for 16 days 
at or below the aniout crest and the Eastern and Western Deltas were 
put on turns for water-supply, which means that the whole available 
supply in the river was not sufficient for the orops. Fortunately 
heavy looal rains occurred and saved the situation." The total area of 
irrigation in that year (1896-97) was 482,633 acres, 

It would obviously be unwise to enoourage during periods of super- 
abundance of water the cultivation of a larger area of wet orops than 
could be brought to maturity by the scantier supply available later on. 

This difficulty and that of supplying any appreciable area of seoond 
crop would of course be met by the provision of reservoirs on the Kistna 
and its tributaries to impound a portion of the large excess of water 
whioh is at times available, and enable it to be used for supplementing 
the natural flow of the river when deficient, and it is to be hoped that 
some day this may be found possible. It is highly unlikely that suit- 
able sites for such reservoirs are to be obtained on the Kistna or its 
tributaries where they lie wholly in the Bombay Presidency, but on 
the Kistna and the Tungabhadra where they skirt the Madras Presi- 
dency and the Nizam's Dominions, and on the main feeders of the latter 
river whioh oome from Mysore territory, reservoirs have from time to 
time been suggested, though, except in one case, not with the object 
of improving the supply of the Kistna Delta, but for independent 
systems of irrigation or for the purposes of the Kurnool-Cuddapah 
Canal. 

With the latter object the Madras Irrigation and Canal Company 

mAA M . . in the sixties investigated several sites, on the 

Bitot for reservoirs 

investigated by the Hagari (or Yedavatti), the Tunga and the Bhadra. 
Madras irrigation and rpj ie gfo w hi i l wa s considered most promising on 
Canal Company. « « * «tt i i 

the first of these three rivers was near Holala* 

gundi, but this need no longer receive consideration because the Madras 



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IRRIGATION. 



153 



G-overnment has, in 1894, * permitted the Mysore State to undertake 
without restrictions the oonstruotion of an immense storage reservoir 
higher up the river, at the " Marikanave," whioh will in most years 
impound, for use in Mysore, all the water coming down the Hagari. 

Of the various sites examined on the Tunga and the Bhadra only 
one was considered really promising and this was on the Bhadra 
near Lakavalli ; for it contours were run, surveys made and approxi- 
mate estimates prepared ; the estimated t capacity of the reservoir being 
33,075 millions of cubic feet and its cost about 50 lakhs. As the site 
lies wholly in Mysore territory, it is doubtful, even if the construction 
of the reservoir were considered advisable, if it would be possible to 
obtain powers to carry out the work merely for advantage of British 
interests. On the Tungabhadra the construction of a large reservoir 
by damming the river near Hoscotta has been frequently advocated ; this 
site was, to some extent, investigated by the Madras Irrigation and Canal 
Company chiefly with the object of irrigating land in the Bellary and 
Kurnool districts. It would cover a large area of valuable land and 
many villages in the Nizam's Dominions as well as on the British side 
of the river, whioh would add greatly to its cost and give rise to political 
difficulties. 

On the Kistna itself a scheme was five and twenty years ago put 
Sir Arthur Cotton's forward by Sir Arthur Cotton for forming a 
proposal for a reservoir reservoir to provide a supply of water to the Kistna 
011 e ' Canals during the " dry season " for irrigation and 

so " that water transit may be secured to the whole district throughout 
the year." He proposed (see his Memo., dated 14th February 1873, 
with P.M.G., No. 2099, dated 23rd August 1873) that at the narrow 
gorge where the river enters on the open plains of the Kistna district 
the precipitous sides should be blown down by ten mines, each containing 
100,000 lb. of gunpowder thus " forming a dam, suppose 100 yards 
high, by a solid barrier of rock in large masses for a length perhaps 
of a quarter of a mile." He did not enter into any details as regards 
the works which would be necessary to let the required quantities of 
water out of the reservoir, and as the Madras Q-overnment remarked 
when dealing with the proposal, the "outlets would have to be 

• See P.M.G., No. 75 I., dated 26th January 1894. Two years previously the oonstruo- 
tion of the reservoir had been objeoted to except under certain restrictions to safeguard 
British interests (see Note by Chief Engineer for Irrigation, No. 58 I., dated 17th Maroh 
1892, with P.M.G., No. 331 I., dated 31st Maroh 1892). 

t See P.M.G., No. 1600, dated 7th June 1873. 

V 



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154 KISTNA DELTA ENGINE BRING HlffTOBT. 

constructed at great cost before the dam itself and their entire destruction 
might be involved in its sudden preoipitation on them by the agency 
proposed." The Government of India, in its letter No. 656 I., dated 
20th September 1873 (see P.M.G., No. 886, dated 30th March 1874), 
suggested that the " project might not be lost sight of," but nothing 
further on the subjeot can be traoed except a reply to the Government 
of India's letter, in which it is stated that the Government of Madras 
does not see " sufficient reason for an investigation of Sir Arthur Cotton's 
rough project." 

The " Duty " * of the water available has also, of course, a most 
important bearing on the area whioh can be 
successfully irrigated, and this has received atten- 
tion. When the Kistna works were originally undertaken, and for 
many years afterwards, it was assumed that 1 cubic foot of water per 
second during the period of cultivation would be required for each 66 
acres of rice, but it gradually became apparent that a much higher duty 
might, be obtained in the deltas, and when in 1874 and 1876 the Kistna 
Delta " Completion Projects " were dealt with, the duty was assumed 
at 74 acres, whilst in 1882 a duty of 81 acres was adopted for the 
G6d&vari Western Delta. 

On this subjeot Mr. Chatterton, Professor of Engineering, Civil 
Engineering College, Madras, who had been 
vesications as to temporarily attached to the Public Works staff of 
"Duty" of water in the th e Kistna district, made some interesting inves- 
deltfti# tigations in 1891-93; they will be found in his 

"Note" circulated with Irrigation Branch "Circular Memorandum" 
No. 32, dated 28th July 1894. He concludes thus— 

"The [conclusion which I have come to at the end of this inquiry, the 
investigations oonnected with whioh have extended over the greater part 
of two irrigation seasons, is that the duty of water may be taken as 90 acres 
per cubio foot per second and that all canals and distributaries should be 
arranged to work at that duty, that during the transplanting time and 
occasionally at other times, such as, when the river is low and a succession 
of small freshes rising only one or two feet on the aniout pass down it, it is 
convenient to supply a somewhat larger quantity of water than usual and 
this can best be done by increasing the flow in the canals, and that at 
times of short supply one cubic foot per second to every 100 acres will enable 
a good crop to be grown if care f be taken to prevent the waste of water. 

• The " Duty " of water is the area which a given quantity of it wiU efficiently 
irrigate. It is usual to take 1 cubio foot per second as the unit, 
t Italics not in original. 



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IRRIGATION. 



155 



"It will probably be possible to obtain a minimum supply of 8,000 
cubic feet per second from the Kistna till the end of November in each year 
as soon as the raising of the crest is completed, and the adoption of the 
conclusions just stated will make the ultimate area of the irrigation of the 
Kistna Delta about 800,000 * acres, an increase of over 300,000 acres on the 
original project area." 

This led to the adoption as the u probable ultimate " of the areas 
given in the following statement, to which have been added the actuals 
of 1897-98 :— 



Eadern Section 
Ellore Canal 
Masulipatam Canal 
Byves' Canal 
Pullera „ 
Polraz ,, 
Bantumilli Canal . . 



Probable Actual areas 
ultimate areas, of 1897-98. 



ACRES. 
65,000 
58,000 
55,000 
152,000 
27,000 
43,000 



ACRES. 

48,166 
42,667 
45,467 
116,783 
. 26,465 
21,524 



Total 



400,000 301,072 



Western Section. 
Main Canal • • 
Bank ,, . . 
Nizampatam Canal • . 
Commamur ,, . • v « •• 


10,000 

95,000 

65,000 

130,000 


9,007 
56,234 
62,447 
91,162 


Total . . 


300,000 


218,850 


Grand Total . . 


700,000 


519,922 



Prevention of waste 
of water. 



The prevention of waste of water which Mr. Chatterton truly refers 
to as a necessity if the above sanguine anticipa- 
tions are to be realized without reservoirs, is a 
most difficult matter to deal with, for every 
cultivator is, night and day, doing his utmost to send as much water as 
possible over his fields so that the silt which it bears may be deposited 
on his lands ; indeed the enforcement of anything like strict economy 
is now impracticable, because Government has no control over the 



* But see extract from Superintending Engineer's letter of 12th September 1898 
given above (page 152), showing that even after the raising was done there was difficulty 
in supplying little more than half that area, 



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156 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

management of the smaller village and field channels. That much has 
been done in the direction of economy by improved sluices and distri- 
bution arrangements for the larger channels, is shown by the increase 
in the duty of water which has already taken place. 

In the above remarks the cultivation of rice is taken as governing 
Bice, the chief crop, *^ e consideration of the case. This is because 
grown in the Kistna nine-tenths of the lands which take anicut water 
grow that crop. Unlike most of the crops under 
the canals of the North- Western Provinces and the Punjab, which want 
only periodical waterings of comparatively short duration, rice requires 
almost continuous flooding from the time it is planted out till it is 
almost ready for the sickle. The length of that period varies from 3 J 
to 6 months according to the description of the rice grown, the better 
kinds requiring the longer time to come to maturity. 

The area on which two wet crops a year are grown is very small in 
the Kistna Delta, only 451 acres in 1897-9^, or less than •yfoth of that 
in the Godavari Delta ; this is due to the small quantity of water avail- 
able in the Kistna during November, December and January, already 
noticed, the supplies received in that river from the north-east monsoon 
rains being much less than in the case of the G6davari. Storage 
reservoirs would doubtless largely increase the area of two-crop wet 
lands. 

The irrigation rules and rates now in force are given below ; the 
rates are now 25 per cent- higher than before 1895 : — 

Rule* for levying Water-rate in the Kistna and Qoddvari Deltas* 

Rule I. 

The water-rates charged 4 for irrigation in the G6ddvari and Kistna 
Deltas are as follow :— 

(1) For a single wet crop, Be. 5 an acre. 

(2) For a second wet crop on irrigated land, Bs. 5 an acre, provided 
that the cultivator may compound for irrigation for two crops for a term 
of years not less than five, for Bs. 8-2-0 an acre. 

N.B. — A second crop is a orop grown on land on whloh a first crop has been grown 
in the same fasli. 

(3) For a second dry crop on irrigated land, Bs. 2-8-0 an acre, if the 
crop is watered only occasionally, and Bs. 3-12-0 an acre, if it is irrigated 
systematically at regular intervals, except where the land-holder has 
compounded under clause 2. 

(4) For sugar-cane, betel, plantains, turmeric and other garden pro- 
duce, remaining on the ground for the time of two crops, Bs. 10 an acre, 



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Irrigation. 157 

provided that the cultivator may compound for a term of years not less than 
five, for Rs. 8-2-0 an acre. 

Note. — Cocoanut and oth»r trees forming tope plantations will be charged the 
same rates as the garden crops above referred to, if they take water for a number of 
months in the year sufficient for raising two rice crops. If not, they will be oharged 
the rate for a single wet crop speoified in clause (1) of these rales. A 

(5) For a dry crop grown on land for which irrigation has never been 
supplied, or, having been once supplied, has been since discontinued under 
Rule III, Rs. 2-8-0 an acre, whether the crop be a first or a second crop 
provided that the crop is watered only occasionally : if it is systematically 
irrigated at regular intervals the charge will be Rs. 3-12-0. These rates 
shall be paid according to the Kistbandi of the district. 

(6) When the water used for irrigation cannot be obtained without 
raising it by baling or mechanical contrivances, a deduction of one-fourth 
of the water-rate will be made. 

(7) When the Colleotor considers the supply of water to be precarious, 
the oharge for a single wet crop will b e Rs. 2-8-0 an acre. 

RULB II. 

(1) Cultivators will be allowed to take or to refuse irrigation for wet 
crops every year, on condition that a formal application, specifying the 
number and extent of the fields for which irrigation is sought or declined, 
be made to the head of the village, and, after registry by the Karnam, be 
sent to the Tahsildar up to the following dates : — 

Applications for irrigation to be supplied — 

(a) For a first crop, 31st March. 

(b) For a second crop, 30th November. 

Applications for irrigation to be discontinued, 31st March. 

(2) When water is required for dry crops under Rule I, clause (5), the 
application may be made at any time. 

(3) When water is not available for all applicants, applications will 
ordinarily be admitted in the following order : — 

(a) To applicants for water for two crops, or one of sugarcane, &c. 

(b) To those who have received water longest, preference being 

given to those whose lands lie nearest the head of the 
channels. 

(4) In the case of all applications for irrigation to be supplied, water 
being available, and of all applications for irrigation to be discontinued, the 
Tahsildar will admit the application, endorse it to that effect, and give it 
back to the Karnam for delivery to the applicant. 

(5) Printed forms of these applications will be kept in stock by th$ 
Karnam. 



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158 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEEfiTNG HISTORY. 

(6) A register of applications, showing whether they have been 
admitted or rejected, will be kept both by the Tahsildar and the Karnam. 

(7) The Tahsildar will send extracts from huuregister to the Executive 
Engineer of the division concerned every week. The Karnam's register will 
be kept open to inspection by the villagers. 

m 

Rule III. 

When land has once been irrigated as tost land, it will be described as 
such in the accounts, and will be supplied with water, and remain liable to 
the water-rate (water being available) until a formal application for the 
irrigation to be discontinued has been made and admitted in the manner 
prescribed in Rule U. 

RtTLB IV. 

Application for water for dry crops grown on dry land, i.e., land for whioh 
irrigation has never been supplied, or having been once supplied, has been 
since discontinued under Rule III, may be made at any time to the 
Karnam, who will send one copy to the Delta Gumastah or Overseer, and 
one to the Tahsildar. 

Rulb V. 

When water is taken for land not previously irrigated or of which the 
irrigation has been relinquished, or when it is taken for raising a second 
crop, wet or dry, on a registered single crop wet land, before a formal 
application for water has been made by the ryot concerned and accepted by 
the Tahsildar as prescribed in Rules II and IV, or after an application has 
been refused, a water-rate equal to twice the rate chargeable according to 
Rule I will be exacted. Double water-rate will also be charged if water be 
taken from a sluice or channel or other source of supply other than that 
which is provided or approved by the responsible officer of the Publio Works 
Department. The Collector may, for sufficient cause, remit or reduce the 
penal portion of the water-rate. 

Rule VI. 

No water-rate will be levied for a single crop on lands in Inams and 
Zemindaries which have been determined by the Collector under the orders 
of the Board of Revenue to be entitled to irrigation from before the time 
the anicut was built as "mamool wet" lands. 

Rule VII. 

Water will be granted free of charge on application to the D.P.W. officers, 
through the Collector, for flooding lands made barren by ' Soudoo, '* whenever 

• Jl salt efflorescence, known in the North-Western Provinces as " reh. M — GkT.W. 



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IRRIGATION. 159 

a sufficient supply of water is available, for a period not exceeding two 
years, provided that, if a crop or crops are raised on the land during this 
period, half the usual water-rate will be charged. 

Eulb VIII. 

Anything in the foregoing rules notwithstanding, Government reserve 
to themselves the full right, with or without reason given, to discontinue 
either temporarily or permanently the supply of water for irrigation. 

Uote 1. No water-rate should be charged on lands assessed as wet nnder tanks 
simply beoanse the land is irrigated by anient water. 

2. A cultivator (tenant) may be called npon to pay for water which he has obtained 
on his own application against the will of the landlord, and, if he fails to pay the water- 
rate, his property, real and personal, may be sold. In such a case, the tenant's real 
property will mean the defaulter's right, title and interest in any land in his holding if 
snoh possesses any value. The sale of such real property will be free of encumbrances, 
but will leave unaffected the landlord's right on the land, whatever it may be. A 
tenant's right in such cases should not bo bought in on behalf of Government. When 
the tenant does not possess sufficient property, it will be discretionary with the Collector 
either to require prepayment of the water-rate or refuse the application altogether. 

3. When water is given on the application of the landlord, the landlord or his 
authorized agent should alone be allowed to tender relinquishment. 

The aggregate length of irrigation distributaries in the Kistna Delta 
System is approximately 1,600 miles. 
The average rainfall in the delta is * — 



January to March . . 
April and May 
June to September 
Oofcober to December 



Total 



INCHES. 
091 

1*8 
21-72 
1203 

36-64 



* See Benson's " Statistical Atlas ". 



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( 160 ) 

CHAPTER X. 

NAVIGATION. 

The battle as to the advisability of combining Navigation with Irri- 
Combinatton of Havi- gation on the larger delta canals was still being 
gation with Irrigation, fought over the Groddvari works when those for the 
Kistna were decided on ; it is certain that the Engineers who had to deal 
with the latter shared Sir Arthur Cotton's views on the subject, but 
nothing very definite about it appears in the papers which preceded the 
commencement of the works, except that in the estimate submitted by 
the Committee and sanctioned by the Court of Directors (see Chapter 
II) a head look was provided from the river into the Main Canal of each 
of the two divisions of the delta. By the time, however, that the 
estimates for the various principal canals were prepared in detail, the 
battle had been won, and the provisions for making them navigable were 
accepted without demur. 

The navigation arrangements, like those for irrigation, were at first 
navigation arrange- dealt with piece-meal and not as a comprehensive 
ments in the Kistna. , whole, but the final result has been that all the chief 
canals have been provided with the necessary locks and other works for 
making them efficient lines of communication. The following list gives 
in a condensed form the information on this subject : — 

Statement of the Navigable Canals, Kistna Delta System. 



[Navigable Tidal Greeks in 


connection with the artificial canals are not included in 




this statement.] 


Name of Canal. 


Class. 


Length 
navigable. 




Remarks. 


Eastebn Delta. 




MILES. 


CHS. 






Main 


1st ... 




51 


i 


Head Lock from river 150' x 16'. 


Ryves* (Head of) 


1st ... 


"l 


... 


... 




Ellore 


1st ... 


89 


60 




There is a lock at junction 
wit.h Ellore Canal, Qtddvari 
District, whioh belongs to that 
system. 


Masnlipatam 


1st ... 


49 


7 


5 




Bank 


2nd ... 


... 


... 


1 


No portion yet navigable, bnt 
lock at head bnilt. 


Pamarra Junction (between 


2nd ... 




40 


1 


Length of look 106', breadth 


Masnlipatam Canal and 










16'. 


Pulleru). 












Pnlleru 


2nd ... 


6 


70 


... 


From Junction Canal to Polras 
and BantnmiUi Canals. 


Polraz 


2nd ... 


26 


40 


3 




Bahtuxnilli 

Totals, Eastern Delta ... 


2nd ... 


26 


15 


3 




... 


150 


43 


14 



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Navigation. 



161 



Name of Canal. 


Class. 


Length 
navigable. 




Remarks. 


Westebn Delta. 
Main 

Bank 

Commamur ... 
Niiampatam 

Totals, Western Delta ... 

Totals, Kistna System ... 


1st ... 

2nd ... 
1st ... 
2nd ... 


13 

46 
58 
28 


4 
20 

7 

31 


i 

4 
6 
5 

16 


Head lock from river j length 
150' X16'. 


... 


145 


... 


295 


74 


30 



It will be thus seen that in the Kistna Delta there are nearly 300 
miles of canals which besides carrying water for irrigation are excellent 
lines of communication ; they also form part of a system of inland navi- 
gation upwards of 1,000 miles in length, for they connect with the 500 
miles of G6d&vari Canals, and with the Buckingham Canal which runs 
for 196 miles to Madras, and for a further 65 miles south of it. 

There cannot be the slightest doubt that the provision of means 

Effect of Navigation * or ea8 7 transit not only about the district itself, 

on development of the but also to other districts and to the ports of 

@ Masulipatam and Cocanada, had a great effect on 

the rate at which irrigation developed and the general prosperity of the 

district increased. 

In this way * the oost of the works specially required for Navigation 
has been repaid over and over again, quite irrespective of the direct 
returns from boat licenses, tolls and so on. This fact, however, has 
been obscured by the praotice of attempting to show the financial results 
from Navigation separately from those due to litigation; the following 
are extracts from a c Note ' on the subject by the then Chief Engineer 
for Irrigation, in 1890 : — 

"... No attempt should be made at separation of receipts 
and charges between Irrigation and Navigation, or at all events there 
should be no consideration of them separately ; the total reoeipts under 
both heads should be compared with the total charges. 

" 2. When in the same canal or system of canals Irrigation and 
Navigation are combined, the works for the two purposes are so inter- 
woven, as it were, that it is impossible to arrive with any accuracy at 
the share of original cost due to each ; and it is still more impossible 
to separate the cost as regards ' Maintenance and Bepairs.' It is, for 



• See " Engineering Works of the Gtfdivari Delta," Chapter XI. 



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162 KISTTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTOBY. 

example, impossible to tell with even approximate accuracy how muoh 
of the necessary silt clearance, or bank-repairing, is due to Irrigation, 
how much to Navigation. 

" 3. The attempt at separation as now carried out is not only useless 
but mischievous, for it has resulted in the misconception that the making 
of the G-oddvari and Eistna canals navigable has not paid, whilst the 
truth is that it has been to Government an excellent investment. 

" 4. It must be remembered that Government is in this matter on 
an entirely different footiDg from private owners of canals ; the latter 
get only the direct returns, the absolute payments for use of the canals ; 
whilst the former in addition to the direct returns, receives indirect 
benefits and returns which cannot be tabulated, but which largely out- 
number and exceed in importance, and even in money value, those 
which are brought to book. The increased comfort and prosperity of the 
people resulting from cheap communications cannot be shown in money 
columns, nor is it possible to credit to Navigation the portion of the 
enhanced revenue under excise, salt, stamps, and so on, really due to it. 

" 5. For example, after the construction of the combined Irrigation 
and Navigation works in the God&vari Delta the imports and exports 
of the District increased rapidly, they doubled in a little over ten years ; 
in twenty years they had increased four-fold, and in thirty-five years 
upwards of ten-fold ; so with the general revenue ; the district which 
for many years had not paid the cost of its administration soon rose to 
the second place amongst the great revenue-yielding distriots of the 
Presidency, whilst the population of the delta has about doubled itself. 
It is certain that these splendid results compared with whioh the direct 
navigation collections from licenses and tolls are insignificant, would 
not have been achieved so rapidly, and it is probable they would never 
have been reached at all, had it not been that the delta is intersected by 
navigable canals which make it easy to export the produce due to irri- 
gation, and whioh bring salt and the various commodities required by a 
well-to-do people almost to their very doors." 

But, though the combination of the two duties of Irrigation and 
Navigation has been most successful in the oanals of the Deltas, it is 
not entirely without drawbacks even there, especially on the high-level 
oanals, and it is but right that those drawbacks should receive some 
notioe. With this object the following extract is given from a ' Memo- 
randum ' written * in 1888 in support of a proposal for a railway between 

• B7 Mr. G. T. Waloh, then Superintending Engineer, 1st Circle. 



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NAVIGATION. 163 

the Kistna and Gdd&vari rivers, a proposal which has sinoe developed 
into the 4 East Coast Railway ' :— 

" Canals for the oombined purposes of irrigation and navigation, with 
special reference to such canals in the GhSddvari district, and the 
necessity for providing other means of traffic betwe^i the Kistna 
and the GhSdAvari. 

" It may be aocepted as an axiom in canal engineering that the 
requirements of irrigation and navigation are conflicting, e.g. y for 
irrigation large quantities of water, and consequently of silt, have to 
be taken into a canal, and therefore the slope of the surface must be 
considerable ; for navigation, the less water taken into the canal, the 
better, and its surface should have no slope ; for irrigation there are 
times when the canal should be kept low, so that large quantities of 
surplus water may not have to be passed into the drainages when they 
are already filled by rain-water ; for navigation the canal should always 
be kept up to its full level ; for irrigation, even when the river or other 
source of supply is low, it is often necessary to go on letting as much 
water as possible out of the oanal to supply crops, thereby reducing the 
level and the depth in the canal, especially at its end ; for navigation 
at such times the water should be kept in the canal, to maintain as 
nearly as possible its full depth. 

" 2. The canals of the Q6ddvari (and Kistna) delta are primarily ^or 
irrigation; they have been made also navigable to supplement their 
usefulness, and never has there been a more successful combination. 
Its very success, however, now threatens, especially on the through lilies, 
to cause the secondary object of the oanals to overtop and seriously 
interfere with the primary one. 

" 3. The dashing of the irrigation and navigation requirements 
mentioned in para. 1 is well exemplified on the Ellore canal, which is 
the through line of communication between the Kistna and the G6d&- 
vari river. On that canal considerable silting, inevitable when large 
quantities of water have to be passed through a canal from a silt-bear- 
ing river, frequently impedes traffio, whilst the necessity for keeping 
sufficient water for heavily laden boats leads at times to more water 
being taken into the oanals and surplussed out, and at other times to less 
water being given out of the canal to its distributaries, than suits the 
irrigation ; and it is a fact that much tempting and perfectly possible 
extension of irrigation from near the end of the canal has to be foregone, 
because it would still further add to the already great difficulty a 
times of keeping the navigation going. 1 ' 



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164 



KISTNA DELTA ENQINEEBIKQ HISTORY. 



Extent to whioh the 
Navigation in the 



The extent to which the navigable oanals of 
Ki^t^rtemlf made the Kifl tna system are used, may be judged from 
the following statement : — 



l ofc 



i.|s 

J3 S Be 

s5'|2 



« 



41 ;J 

B lJfi* sS 




a 



1 



! 






1 



Ja B * 

3* I 



I 



§ iiiiiis §8S88iiSH8Si § 



1 



111 



sssssss 



SSS.SSB25SR.gS88 8 

»?*»'-" r«C0r-<eC Vi-TiHQl 



§ §888888 vlRlillisailS 2 



rt fi t * HH S 



t^oooeo •T^i-i©*co « 



-• I *88$*S% slliriisiiiig a 









S B|SS8S. 888.8"8$8Sg53i 



s Sq^«8 i&88~S8S83388 



°*gs*g§ 3328*8838188 



» XlMfc ss 



fill's 



flit. 



S§5 



...... . «* « • . . o 

' : s al ! J ! * 
jLlfclllilfi 

o»Oi-.'e^eo-*»o<et^oo2©23 



3552 



S2S2 



•Si 

P 
.1* 



si p§s 

go ftggO 



So 



i 



8 



I 
i 



1 



1 



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NAVIGATION. 



165 



J If* M 

's£ g u g t 



Jryi s i 
SBWJ 

g«3&g£5 



i g 



3. 

s 



2 



3 3 " 



2 K 



1 



1 



P 



1 



I 



o. 



M <« £ 

^ ^ g 



I i 



5 s. 






i 



i 

a 

I 



I 5 * 



9 



a itli ■' 1 

1 jIi! 1 1 

00 QQ OQ p^ n 

S{ 3 £ £ 8 




w 



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166 



KISTNA DELTA SVODTSBBINO H18T0BY. 



Lieense - feat tad tolli 
for use of canals. 



No license tees or tolls seem to have been enforced on the Kistna 
Canals before 1863, but after that, charges were 
made which varied from time to time, till in 1882 
the question of the navigation charges and roles 
for the GhSdAvari, Kistna and East Coast Canals was gone into by 
a committee, whose proposals are to be found in P.M.GK, No. 562 W., 
dated 20th February 1883. The rates proposed by it were considerably 
modified by the Chief Engineer for Irrigation (Colonel J. 0. Hasted, 
B.E.), and his modifications sanctioned by Government are given in the 
following statement together with those which were superseded :— 



Present (1882) 

rates per ton of 

50 onbio feet. 



Bates proposed 

by Chief Engineer 

for Irrigation and 

sanctioned bj 

Government. 



Remark*, 



Annual Licenses. 

Cargo Boats. 

GoVUvari 

Kistna 

Buckingham Canal 



Passenger Boats, 1st 
Class. 

Gtfavari 

Kistna 

Buckingham Canal 

Passenger Boats, 2nd 
Class. 

Grfdavari 

Kistna 

Buckingham Canal 

Steamers. 

Gtfdarari 

Kistna 

Buckingham Canal 



Tolls. 
Rafts, Timber. 
GoMavari 



Kistna 

Buckingham Canal 



Annual Licenses. 



Bs. 

1* 

2 per section, f 10 

for whole canal 



4* 

2 per section, 4 for 
whole canal. 



3i 
8* 

2 per section, 4 for 
whole canal. 



5 
6 
As cargo on passen- 
ger boats. 

Tolls. 



4 annas per 100 
square feet each 
canal. 

Do. 
1 anna per square 
yard. 



per ton or 

CUBIC FEET 
ANNUM. 



60» 

PER 



( Bs. 2} to clear all 
the canals. 



* 15 per cent, 
deducted from 
gross measure- 
ment for net 
tonnage. 

t The Bucking- 
ham Canal was 
divided into six 
sections. 



Bs. 6 



Bs.3 



Bs. 5 



t One-third 
deducted from 
gross measure- 
ment for net 
tonnage. 



8 annas per 100 
square feet for 
each system for 
one month. 



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tUVUUTtOlt. 



16* 



— 


Present (1882) 
rates per ton of 
* 50 cubic feet. 


Bates proposed 

by Chief Engineer 1 

for Irrigation and 

sanctioned by 

Government. 


Remarks. 


Rafts, Bamboo. 

CWdawi 

Kistna 

Buckingham Canal 

Vessels. 

G6dayari 

Kistna 

Buckingham Canal 

Steamers. 

G6davari 

Kistna 

Buckingham Canal 


2 annas per 100 

square feet. 
Do. 
1 anna per square 

yard. 

4 annas per ton each 

canal. 

Do. 
4 annas per ton 

each section of 

canal. 

Same as vessels. 


iannasper 100 
square feet for 
each system for 
one month. 
J 

8 annas per ton 
for six weeks 
• overall canals 
in any direc- 
tion. 
J 

"| 1 rupee per ton 

for six weeks 

► over all canals 

in any direo- 

J tion. 





The main features of the new arrangement -were the reduction in 
the number of toll stations, which had been found to harass traffic, and 
the discontinuance of separate licenses for each system, in favour of a 
• compound rate ' covering all the systems. As bearing on these subjects, 
the following extracts from the Memorandum of the Chief Engineer for 
Irrigation are given :-— 

" 8. . . . The Committee consider that tolls cannot be entirely 
abolished, but that to allow of the occasional use of the canals without 
taking out a license, toll stations must be maintained at the head looks 
of each section of the deltas, all tidal locks, at Ellore near the junction 
of the Gh5ddveri and Kistna Canals, and four places on the Buckingham 
Canal, for the public convenience, thus reducing the number of toll 
stations from 47 to 20. To these proposals I agree on the understand- 
ing that the toll stations are maintained for the public convenience only, 
that no obstructions such as now exist in the shape of a chain drawn 
across the canal shall be allowed, and that the toll-taker has no author- 
ity to stop any boat or call for the production of its license unless there 
is some apparent infringement of the rules. A subordinate in the 
position of a Lock Superintendent or toll-keeper should never be 
allowed the powers of an Inspecting Offioer. The toll-keepers should be 



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168 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

restricted to issuing toll tickets when called upon to do so. It is better 
to risk some loss than to harass the traffic." .... 

" 10. The Committee give the rates at which they propose to fix 
license fees and tolls, and here they follow the system at present in force 
to some extent. They propose a separate license fee for each system, 
and a oompound rate for all these systems, bat they do not propose to 
retain the present plan of charging a separate fee for each section of the 
Buckingham Canal. Passenger boats of both classes are dealt with in 
the same way as cargo boats, also steamers. I am prepared here to go 
a great deal further than the Committee. What I desire to sac is one 
demand to clear all the canals. I would remove all obstacles in the 
way of Navigation that I possibly could, believing that the interest of 
Government will be best served by improving the communications, 
stimulating consumption, and consequently extending production/' 

"11. . . . I do not look for an immediate return, but I do expect 
that the opening of the canal to traffic in this way will eventually prove 
remunerative to Government, and I allow that it will be practicable to 
raise these rates at some future time.' 1 

The rates thus sanctioned in 1883 remained in force for upwards 
of 15 years, but have now (1898) been increased as explained below. 

Early in 1893 that portion of the " East Coast (State) Railway "which 
runs along the " Ellore " Canal of the G6d&vari and Kistna systems * 
was opened between the two rivets, and later in the year completed to 
Cocanada ; it is in order that some idea may be formed of the effect of 
the railway on the canal traffic that, in the statement on pages 164-5, has 
been shown what that traffio was in 1892-93 (i.e., 1st April 1892 to 
31st March 1893), as well as in 1896-97. 

The railway between Bezwada and Cocanada had not long been 
opened when its officers began to complain that 
it could not successfully compete with the water 
carriage, without a considerable enhancement of the charges for use of 
the canals, or at all events of the line between Bezwada and Cocanada, 
consisting of the Kistna-Ellore Canal and the G6dAvari, Ellore and 
Cocanada Canals. Many ways were urged of effecting this, the most 
favoured being an almost prohibitory toll at [the G6ddvari river locks. 
The matter was in 1896 referred to a committee who recommended a 
reversion to the arrangement in force before 1883 (see statement on page 
166) by which the " G6ddvari," " Kistna " and « East Coast " Canals were 
treated as separate and independent systems of navigation, with the fees 
to be paid for their use very largely enhanced, in most cases quadrupled, 



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NAVIGATION. 169^ 

from those in foroe since 1883, and a preliminary notice to this effect was 
published. This would have been handicapping the canals with a 
vengeance, and not only the canals with whioh the railway is in direct 
rivalry, but also those which serve parts of the country whioh the railway 
does not reach and which are positively " feeders " to it; the result would 
have been that the best interests of the public and the Government would 
have been sacrificed with the object that a portion of the traffic which 
perf erred to use the State canals might be forced on to the State railway, 
so that the latter might be thus artificially made to show better returns. 

Fortunately before the Government was finally committed to this 
oourse, further consideration was given to the subject and wiser counsels 
prevailed. After some time the matter was ably dealt with by the 
Chief Engineer for Irrigation, Mr. W. Hughes, in a "Note " whioh will 
be found with P.M.GK, No. 319 I., dated 18th April 1898. In this, he 
points out that in all the " most advanced countries " of Europe, u the 
tendency is to treat canals as roads, freeing them from all charges exoept 
remuneration for services actually rendered, and looking for a return in 
the general increase of the prosperity of the country whioh the canals 
serve. They are considered rather as complements than rivals to rail- 
ways, each kind of transport being specially suitable for certain kinds 
of traffic. In no progressive oountry is any direct profit on (canal) navi- 
gation sought/' by the State ; and that it is " felt to be a national 
misfortune " that " in England the Eailway Companies were allowed to 
get control of many of the canals." 

He deprecates the attempt "to adopt the same system here," and 
he combats the idea " that the railway cannot get a fair amount of traffic 
owing to the through traffic on the canals, unless the latter be so 
taxed as to prevent boats carrying for less than 4 J pies per ton per mile." 
As regards this he says : 

" The railway traffic between Bezwada and Cooanada in 1896 was 72,000 
tons, which is nearly the amount by which the canal traffic fell off. The 
railway was at the time charging 2} pies per ton per mile, but was handi- 
capped by the breakage of bulk and delay and exposure of goods at the 
Godavari crossing. Nevertheless practically all the salt, cotton, and oil-seeds, 
which constituted the more valuable part of the canal traffic went to the 
railway, and there seems no reason to doubt that the railway can largely 
increase its rates and still keep the valuable traffic when the G6davari 
bridge is completed or other arrangements made to take loaded waggons 
across the river. The experience of other countries all goes to show that 
since the great improvements of recent times in permanent way and rolling- 
stock, railways running in competition with canals get nearly all the more 

y 



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170 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 



valuable traffic, leaving the canals to carry goods of much bulk or little 
value, trade in which is affected by a very slight difference in freight." 

He then recommends the scale of licenses for use of the canals which 
is shown in the following table, in which are also shown- the rates in force 
since 1883 and those recommended by the committee above referred to: — 



Nature of vessel. 


Bates in force 
since 1833. 


Proposed in draft 
notification. 


Proposed by the Chief 

Engineer for Irrigation 

and approred oy 

GoTernment. 


Annual. 


Six weeks. 


Annual. 


Six weeks. 


General 
license, 
annual. 


Six weeks. 


Steamers, per ton— 
lline 

2 lines 

3 lines 

Cargo boats— 

1 line 

2 lines 

8 lines 

Open cargo boats 

Passenger boats, 1st 
class— 

1 line 

2 lines 

8 lines 

Passenger boatt, 2nd 
class— 

1 line 

2 lines 

8 lines 

Decked cargo boats and 
passenger boats, 2nd 
class 

Rafts of timber 100 square 
feet— 

1 line 

2 lines 

SlineB 

Bafts of bamboos— 

1 line 

2 lines 

3 lines 


B8. A. P. 

1 5 
| 2 8 

| 5 
{•800 


BS. A. P. 

10 
8 

8 
8 

(1 month.) 

8 
8 
8 

4 
4 
4 


BS. A. P. 

M0 
■< 15 
C 20 

(-280 
4 6 
C 10^ 0* 

( 5 
< 9 

(.14 

( 8 
4 7 

(.12 

} - 


BS. A. P. 

2 
2 
8 

10 
10 
18 

14 
18 
2 

10 
10 
18 

18 
10 


BS. A. P. 

J- 15 

s"o 

i 6 
4 


BS. A. P. 

8 

10 
14 

018 

10 
8 



With reference to his proposed enhancements of navigation charges 
the Chief Engineer for Irrigation remarks : 

"This is a tariff for revenue to satisfy the objection of the Government of 
India that the navigation is being worked at a loss. The amount of addi- 
tional revenue required to cover the present deficit and the further falling 
off which will occur when the Madras-Bezwada line is opened is of course 
purely conjectural. The rates entered are such as it is thought traffic will 
bear without sensible injury. The rates for annual licenses are increased 
20 to 33 per cent, and for six-weeks licenses 20 to 150 per oent., the reason 
for the great variation in the latter case being that in the 1883 tariff a 
uniform rate of 8 annas was imposed in lieu of two tolls irrespective of the 
class of vessels. The six-weeks rates now proposed are roughly one-fifth 
of the annual rates. The rates for steamers are trebled. The canals are 
generally not deep enough for steam traffio, and steamers unless very small 



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Navigation. 



171 



and worked at a low speed do much injury to the banks. It is decidedly 
a bad time to increase rates at all, but the increase cannot be avoided if the 
receipts and charges are to be made to balance." * 

Government accepted the recommendations made, and the new scale of 
fees came into force in May 1898. 

The annual Maintenance charges against Navigation are to a consider- 

able*extent purely arbitrary, and to show the way 

navigation Mainte- in which they are assessed, the following statement 

nance charges. of those ^j^g f or the Kistna system in 1897-98 

is appended : — 



Description. 


Total 

charges for 

1897-98. 


Debitable to 


Navigation. 


Irrigation. 


Rate. 


Amount. 


Bate. 


Amount. 


1. Look establishment 

2. Locks and lock- weirs re- 

pairs 
8. Navigation buildings 

4. Towpath maintenance ... 

5. Miscellaneous (including 

charges not appertaining 
to the above items) 

6. Share of canal mainte- 

nance 

Total ... 


RS. 

6,167 

18,278 

1,804 

18,765 

9,934 
96,792 


Whole ... 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 
One-third. 


RS. 

6,167 

18,278 

1,804 

18,765 

9,934 
32,264 


Two-thirds. 


BS. 

64,528 


1,51,740 


... 


87,212 


... 


64,528 



Navigation rules. 



Towage on Canals. 



There are complete Eules dealing with c Licenses, ' ' Tolls, ' c Wharf- 
age fees,' dhd general ' Kegulations ' for naviga- 
tion ; but it seems unnecessary to give them here, 
for they are lengthy and are from time to time published. 

The following remarks on the Towage on the Canals, which are as 
applicable to the Kistna Canals as to those of 
the G-6davari, are taken from the "Engineering 
History of the GMdavari Delta " :— 

Manual labour as the motive power for boats is extensively used, but 
the waterway of most of the canals is so broad that sailing is largely 
resorted to. The passenger, or c Eahadri,' boats have two large lateen 
sails, the peaks of which rise high above the banks, whilst barges or 
4 Dhonies ' are generally square-rigged and often carry * Main,' ' Top,* 
and * Top-gallant ' sails, and sometimes even c Eoyals.' 



* See also remarks on page 161. 



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172 KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

Of course the introduction of steam power for the transportation of 
freight along the canals has often been considered, and it has to some 
extent been tried, but without suocess. It cannot compete with manual 
labour, unless that becomes far less plentiful and cheap than it now is, 
and unless the canals along the chief lines of communication be main- 
tained along their whole lengths and at all points to a depth greater than 
is now the case. As bearing on this interesftng subject, the following 
information is given about it, in connection with one of the most import- 
ant artificial inland waterways of the world, the Erie Canal in the New 
York State, running from Lake Erie at Buffalo, to the Hudson Eiver at 
Albany, a distance of 363 miles. Up to nineteen * years ago, all attempts 
to introduce financially successful steam navigation on that Canal had 
failed, and this though it had to compete only with the haulage by animal 
power there used, which is many times more expensive than that by 
manual labour in the GhSd&vari District. In the last few years, however, 
continuous attention to the subject has resulted in such improvements to 
the steam-tugs and the general towing arrangements connected with 
them, that their use on the Canal is gradually extending. To secure 
this result, however, it has been found necessary to lengthen the Locks 
considerably and to maintain the depth of water in the Canal at not 
less than 7 feet ; a low rate of speed has also had to be adopted, under 3 
miles t an hour on the average. 

That steam, or perhaps electricity, will eventually supersede the 
towing coolie on the &6ddvari and Kistna Canals is most probable, but 
this will not be for many a long day yet. • 



• Seo page 81 of " Navigable Rivera and Canals of the United States and Canada."— 
Walch. 

f Report of State Engineer, State of New York, for 1891. 



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( 173 ) 



CHAPTER XI. 

RESULT8 OF THE K1STNA DELTA WORKS. 

The financial and other results of the Kistna Delta System of Irriga- 
tion and Navigation have already been noticed in various parts of this 
History, but it will probably prove convenient to have the information 
about the more important of them grouped in one chapter. 

I. — Dieect Money Keturns. 

Total Capital Expenditure, including bs. bs. 

4 * Indirect charges", from 1852 to 
end of 1 897-98— see Appendix No. II. . . 1,31,91,665 

Total Ebcbipts from the Works to end 
of 1897-98 4,52,39,350 

Bat of this, assumed as due to the irri- 
gation existing before the works of 
the system were commenced . . 33,59,135 



Balance credited to the Works . . . . 4, 1 8;80, 2 1 5 

Total Expenditubb and Charges on 

Bevbnue Account (" Minor Extensions 

and Improvements" Maintenance, 

Interest Charges — see Statement, 

Chapter VI) to end of 1897-98 . • . . 2,31,85,707 



Balance — Clear Surplus of Receipts 
over "Revenue" Expenditure and 
Charges to end of 1897-98 . . . . 1,86,94,508 

or nearly half as much again as the whole Capital expended ; and this it 
must be remembered is after having provided interest on the money 
spent; for such interest has been/ and is still being, charged at 4 per cent, 
year by year against the Works, though it might have been extinguished 
long ago by a sinking fund raised from the surplus profits. 

The net Annual Revenue of the system after paying interest at 4 per 
cent, gives 9*5 per cent, on the Capital outlay, or 13*17 per cent, were 



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It4 



KISTNA DELTA ENOlftEEBINa HISTORY. 



interest charges not made ; this is shown in the following statement for 
1897-98 :— 



Capital Outlay, 
Direct and 
Indirect, to 
end of 1897-98. 


£1* 


Working Expen- 
ses, 1897-98 (in- 
cluding collec- 
tion charges). 


31 


Percentage of 
Net Revenue on 
Capital Outlay 
in 1897-98. 


Interest on Capi- 
tal Outlay 
charged in 
1897-98. 


11 

pi 

00 


Percentage of 
Surplus Rev- 
enue on Capital 
Outlay after de- 
ducting inter- 
est. 


B8. 

1,31,91,665 


BS. 
24,79.695 


ES. 

7,41 ,419 


BS. 
17,88,276 


1317 


BS. 
4,86,248 


B8. 
12,52,028 


9*5 



* Exclusive of Rs. 66,100 assumed as due to " Old irrigation." 

When the " Completion estimates " were sanctioned by the Secretary 
of State, it was anticipated t that the pet revenue, excluding interest 
charges, would be only Es. 9,41,132, and the percentage on expenditure 
only 677 per cent. 

II. — Growth of Eevenue op the District. 

The following statement gives the income from various sources of 
Eevenue of the Kistna District at intervals of ten years since the year 
in which the anicut was begun : — 



Sources of Revenue. 


In 

1850-61. 


In 
1860-«1. 


In 

1870-71. 


In 
1880-81. 


In 
1890-91. 


In 
1897-98. 


Remarks. 


1 


2 


3 


* 


6 


6 


7 


Land Revenue and 


BS. 


BS. 


SB. 


BS. 


BS. 


BS. 




Water, tax 


21,59.672 


27,67,389 


35,91,758 


41,71,685 


49,94,895 


$54,67,478 


The water-tax 
increased in 
1895-96 by 
about 25 per 


Income tax— Assessed 














cent. 


taxes 




24,538 


1,14,117 


29,284 


80,107 


1,46,532 




Stamps 


21,626 


36,776 


1,87,793 


2,08,151 


2,97,029 


4,52,468 




Abkari 


78,068 


1,04,530 


1,74,897 


2,30,660 


8,11,814 


8,40,198 




Opium 








7.15S 


46,727 


51,564 




Sea Customs 


6,982 


6,232 


9,835 


74,601 


65,650 


16,378 




8alt 


6,93,090 


6.70,517 


1*,09,977 


10,28,390 


§ 16,52,686 


II 6,17,665 


For decrease 
see note 
below. 


Moturpha (tax on 
















Manufacturing and 
















Trading com- 
















munity) 

Totals 


72,740 


49,023 








... 




!M>,32,078 


36,59,005 


ol.3S.377 


57,49,929 


79,48,908 


75,92,283 



From this it will be seen that the total revenue raised by Govern- 
ment from the District has, in less than 50 years, risen from 30J lakhs 

t See Chapter VI, page 107. 

$ In this the whole of the Ri. 24,79,695 of the statement under I is included. 

§ This is the Revenue of the Masnlipatam Salt Sub-Division which in 1890-91 com- 
prised the whole of the G6*d£vari District and the greater portion of the Kistna District. 

H This is the Revenue of the present Masnlipatam Salt Snb-Division which consists 
of the greater portion of the Kistna District only. 



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RESULTS OF THE KISTKA DELTA WOBKS. 



175 



to nearly 76 lakhs, and besides this, large sums are now oollected as 
"Local" and " Municipal " taxes which did not exist in former days, but 
are now raised without hardship, owing to the greatly increased prosperity 
of the people. The whole of the increase of the Revenue is not of course 
solely due to the Delta Works, but most certainly far more is due to 
them than merely that with whioh they are credited (Es. 24,79,695 in 
1897-98) for all the sources of Revenue, and not merely the Land and 
Water-tax, are largely affected by the increase in population and general 
prosperity resulting from the Anicut and its attendant Irrigation and 
Navigation Works. 

Amongst all the districts of the Madras Presidency, the Kistna 
stands second as regards its " Land Revenue and Water-tax," and third 
as regards its total Revenue from all sources, coming next after the two 
other extensively irrigated districts of Tan j ore and G6d&vari. 

III. — Population. 

The population of the distriot has, in 25 years, increased by about 
43 per cent, as shown in the following statement. The effect of irriga- 
tion on the density of population is very marked : — 

Population of the Kistna District, Census of 1866-67, 1871, 1881 and 1891. 



Taluks. 


Census, 
1866-67. 


Census, 
1871. 


Census, 
1881. 


Census, 
1891. 


Area in 
square 
miles. 


Popula- 
tion per 
square 
mile. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 





7 


Irrigated by Anient 

water more or less. 

Bandar or Masulipa- 

tam 

Bapatla 

Rezwada 

Nusvid 

Gudivada 

Repalli or Tenali ... 
Guntur 

Not irrigated at all 
by Anicut water. 

Nandigama 

Narasarowpet 

Palnad 

Sattenapalli 

Vinukoada 

Vissannapet 

Total ... 


146,522 
129,528 

73,373 
105,438 

80,171 
155,092 
113,963 

98,637 
102,136 
106,395 
84,000 
52,574 
48,823 


163,447 
139,878 

84,201 
107,760 

89,900 
168,577 
124,505 

107,255 
121,080 
120,519 
102,203 
64,284 
55,399 


175,482 
151,736 

82,895 
125,165 

99,233 
184,340 
136,083 

107,288 
128,791 
125,799 
110,290 
66,977 
54,401 


198,384 
181,940 
106,477 
153,628 
118,310 
222,757 
166,817 

126,701 
156,377 
142,011 
138,617 
82,445 
61,118 


740 
679 
422 
789 
595 
644 
500 

677 
712 
1,042 
714 
646 
338 


268 
268 
252 
194 
•198 
345 
333 

187 
219 
136 
194 
127 
180 


1,296,662 


1,449,008 


1,548,480 


1,855,582 


8,498 


... 



* Includes a considerable area of the Colair Lake. 



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176 KI8TNA DELTA ENGINEERING HI9T0BY. 

IV.— Cultivation. 

The area of irrigated land in the Delta has since the construction of 
the Anient increased from some 40,000 acres of precarious cultivation, 
to upwards of half a million of acres of wet crops grown annually 
with almost absolute certainty, whilst large areas of " dry " crops, 
" garden cultivation," and so on, which do not ostensibly " take " water 
and therefore do not pay water-tax, are greatly benefited by the Canals 
and Channels. 

V. — Communications. 

Before the Anicut was begun the deltaio portions of the district were 
almost entirely without internal means of communication worthy of 
the name, and suoh traffic as there was, had to be carried on chiefly by 
means of coolies and pack-cattle ; now, the Delta is intersected by nearly 
300 miles of exoellent navigable Canals furnishing the cheapest of all 
means of inland carriage, and there are some 350 miles of well-made 
roads for wheeled traffic, constructed and maintained from Looal Funds, 
which the great prosperity of the distriot has made it possible to 
collect within itself. 

VI.— GENERAL. 

This History has shown how important are the results of the Eistna 
Delta Irrigation and Navigation Works. They have raised the district 
from poverty and deterioration to prosperity and progress ; they have 
converted hundreds of square miles of its barren lands into fruitful fields, 
and secured it against the famines which used to ravage it, so that 
besides growing sufficient food-grains for its own inhabitants it provides 
a surplus for less favoured regions ; and this has been accomplished with 
the happiest financial results, for the direct returns alone have far more 
than repaid to the State all the capital expended on the works, and 
they yield a yearly surplus revenue, after paying all expenses, of 
upwards of 17 lakhs of rupees. 

The Kistna Irrigation and Navigation System is therefore a conspi- 
cuous suooess even if regarded by itself ; but it does not stand alone ; 
it is, as it were, the complement of the adjoining still greater G6d4vari 
Delta System, the oombined area of irrigation of the two systems being 
upwards of one and-a-quarter million acres, interseoted by numerous 
navigable Canals, and forming a thriving province of exceptional 
fertility. 



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APPENDIX NO. I. 

APPENDIX No. I. 



177 



List of Officer* employed in connection with the Kistna Delta Works 
since 1859. (Registers before 1859 imperfect,) 



[Note. — This list was prepared in the Office of the Chief Engineer, 

quite oomplete.] 


P.W.D., but is not 


Names. 


From 


To 


* CHIEF ENGIHEEBS FOB IRRIGATION. 




Lient.-Colonel J. H. Bell, Chief Engineer, 

P.W.D. 
Lient.-Colonel W. H. Horslry, Chief Engineer, 

P.W.D. 
Colonel W. J. Bibdwood, Chief Engineer, 

P.W.D. 
Colonel C. A. Ore, Chief Engineer, P.W.D. 


April 1859 
May 1860 


May 1860. 
June 1862. 


June 1862 
September 1863. 


September 1863. 
April 1871. 


Lieut.-ColonelJ. C. Anderson 


November 1867. 


Maroh 1869. 


Major J. Mdllins (Acting) 


March 1869 ... 


August 1869. 


Lieut.-ColonelJ. C. Anderson 


August 1869 ... 


October 1870. 


Major J. Mullins 


November 1870. 


March 1871. 

• 


Captain F. G. Btves (Acting) 


March 1871 ... 


July 1871. 


Captain B. F. Oakes (Acting) 


September 1871. 


November 1872. 


Lieut.-ColonelJ. Mullins 


November 1872. 


May 1875. 


Major J. 0. Hasted 


May 1875 


August 1875. 


Lieut.- Colonel J. Mcllins 


August 1875 ... 


October 1878. 


Lieut.-ColonelJ. 0. Hasted (Acting) 


October 1878 ... 


January 1879. 


Colonel J. Mdllins 


April 1879 <.. 


April 1881. 


Lient.-Colonel J. 0. Hasted (Aoting) 


April 1881 


July 1881. 


Colonel J. Mdllins 


July 1881 


March 1882. 


Colonel J. 0. Hasted 


March 1882 ... 


September 1886. 


Lient.-Colonel J. Penntcuick (Aoting) 


September 1886. 


March 1887. 


Colonel H. B. Mead 


Maroh 1887 ... 


October 1888. 


G. T. Walch 


October 1888 ... 


October 1892. 


Lient.-Colonel B. B. E. Drake -Brockman 


October 1892 ... 


October 1896. 


W. Hughes , 


October 1896 ... 


July 1898. 


J. C. Larminie (Acting) 


July 1898 


October 1898. 


W. Hughes 


Ootober 1898 ... 





• The post of Chief Engineer for Irrigation appears to have been created in 1867* 

2 



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178 KJSTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 

APPENDIX No. I—cont 

List of Officers employed in connection with the Kistna Delta Works 
since 1859— cout. 



Names. 



From 



To 



SUPERINTENDING ENGINEEES. 
May 1859 



Major W. H. Hobsley, Dj. Chief Engineer, 
North Circle. 

Lieut.-Colonel S. O. E. Ludlow, Dy. Chief 
Engineer, North Circle. 

Lieut.-Colonel J. C. Anderson 

Lieut.- Colonel G. V. Winscom 

Colonel F. J. Moberly 

Major J. 0. Hasted 

G. T. Walch, Superintendent of Works, G<5da- 
vari- Kistna. 

J. W. Rundall 

Lieut. -ColonelJ. L. L. Morant 

Major S. C. Clarke 

G. D. Wybrow 

J. W. Rundall 

J. Hannan 

J.W.Martin 

A. A. G. Malet (Aoting) 

J. W. Martin 

Major W. L. C. Baddeley 

W. C. DeMorgan (Acting) 

J. E. Paul (Acting) 

J. Hannan 

W. C. Lewis (Acting) , 



December 1860. 

May 1863 
April 1865 ... 
November 1868. 
January 1873 ... 
March 1880 ... 

August 1880 ... 
July 1885 
June 1886 
August 1886 ... 
August 1887 ... 
December 1887. 
July 1892 
April 1893 ... 
July 1893 
April 1894 ... 
15th Nov. 1897. 
28th Nov. 1897. 
January 1898 ... 
30 July 1898 ... 



May 1860. 

February 1861. 

April 1865. 
.November 1868. 
May 1872. 
May 1875. 
August 1880. 

July 1885. 
April 1886. 
August 1886. 
August 1887. 
December 1887. 
July 1892. 
April 1893. 
July 1893. 
April 1894. 
November 1897. 
27th Nov. 1897. 
7th Jan. 1898. 
Up to date. 
8 Ootober 1898. 



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APPENDIX NO. 1. 

APPENDIX No. I— cont. 

List of Officer* employed in connection with the Kistna Delta Works 
since 1859 — cont. 



179 



Names. 



From 



To 



Nature of charge. 



EXECUTIVE ENGINEERS. 



Captain O. W. S. Chambers. 

Lieutenant J. Virtue 

Captain F. G. Ryvbs 

Major J. C. Anderson 

G. S. Sage 

Captain G. V. Winscom ... 

Captain J. N. Hunter 

CaptainS. J. Smith 

Lieutenant H. M. Vibart ... 

J. L. MacAlpine ... 

R. Carew 

Lieutenant A. R. Kdgcomk... 

Captain H. Smalley 

Lieutenant H. M. Vibart ... 

Lieutenant D. McNeil 
Campbell. 

B. W. Norris 

C J. Peters 

G. D. Wybrow 

J. D. Grant 

J. Hannan 

W. C. DeMorgan 

C. H. B. Burlton 

J. Traill 

N. B. Todd 

D. M. Hayes 

Major L. Langley 



November 1857. 
October 1859 ... 
March 1860 ... 
March 1861 ... 
July 1863 
September 1864. 
November 1865. 
May 1865 
December 1866. 
April 1868 ... 
April 1868 ... 
July 1868 
January 1870 ... 
February 1871... 
April 1874 ... 
February 1875... 
April 1875 
June 1879 
August 1880 ... 
December 1882. 
May 1885 
August 1886 ... 
September 1887. 
September 1887. 

May 1888 
January 1889 ... 



October 1859 .. 
March 1860 .. 
January 1861 ... 
April 1863 ... 
September 1864. 
March 1865 ... 
Not known 
January 1868 ... 
July 1868 
March 1870 ... 
November 1868. 
February 1870. 
January 1873 ... 
July 1872 
January 1876 ... 
June 1879 
October 1880 ... 
May 1883 
July 1886 
March 1885 ... 
April 1886 ... 
October 1887 ... 
May 1888 
November 1891. 

December 1888. 
April 1890 ... 



Kistna Division. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Fifth Range. 

Do. 
Seventh Range. 
Sixth Range. 
Kistna Division. 
Seventh Range. 
First Range. 
Sixth Range. 
Seventh Range. 
Western Delta. 
Not known. 
Western Delta. 
Eastern Delta. 
Western Delta. 
Eastern Delta. 
Gudivada Division. 

Do. 
Eastern Delta. 
Do. 

Western Delta and 
Gudivada Divi. 
sion. 

Eastern Delta. 

Do. 



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180 . KISTNA DELTA ENGINBEBINO HISTOBT. 

APPENDIX No. I— cont. 

List of Officers employed in connection with the Kistna Delta Works 
since 1859— cont. 



Names. 


From 


To 


Nature of charge. 


EXECUTIVE ENGINEEBS— cont. 




J. E. Paul 


September 1889. 


February 1891. 


Western Delta. 


W. Jopp 


February 1890. 


April 1893 


Eastern Delta. 


A. A. G. Malkt ... | 


March 1891 ... 
July 1893 


April 1893 ... 
September 1896. 


Western Delta. 
Do. 


C. J. Ussheb ... J 
C. F. Smith ■ 


April 1890 
November 1891. 
April 1893 ... 


February 1891... 
February 1893... 
July 1896 


Eastern Delta. 

Western and Gudi- 

vada Divisions. 
Eastern Delta. 


J. Traill 


October 1893 ... 


February 1894... 


Gudivada Division. 


Captain W. M. Ellis ... J 


December 1894. 
December 1893. 


February 1896 ... 
Up to date 


Northern Delta. 
Do. 


H. J. Keeling 


February 1896. 


December 1896. 


Do. 


W. C. Lewis 


September 1896. 


July 1898 


Western Delta. 


J. 8. WIL90N 


February 1897. 


Up to date 


Eastern Delta. 


B. A. Seinivasa Aiyangar. 


July 1898 


October 1898 ... 


Western Delta. 



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APPENDIX NO. I. 181 

APPENDIX No. I—cont. 
Liet of Officers employed in connection with the Kistna Delta Works — cont. 



Names. 



From 



To 



ASSISTANT 



Captain D. G. Pollard 

Lieutenant J. B eatlt 

Lieutenant J. Magna y 

W. B. Leggatt ... 

Lieutenant J. O. Hasted 

P. N. Hawkins 

Lieutenant A. B. Edgcome 

Lieutenant H. M. Vi bart 

Lieutenant A. C. Smith 

Lieutenant W. H. Coakeb 

R. W. Nobris 

C. J. Peters 

Lieutenant P. MacNeil Campbell 

Lieutenant C. C. Rawson 

Lieutenant C. B. Wilkinson 

W. B. deWinton 

CM. Smith 

Lieutenant O. V. Boddy 

G. B. Lambert 

A. H. Garrett 

S. D. Pears 

C. J. U8BHER 

A. M. Foord 



ENGINEERS. 

December 1857.. 
January 1857 ... 
Deoember 1857. 
December 1859. 
July 1861 
October 1861 ... 
February 1863. 
January 1868 ... 
June 1863 
September 1864. 
April 1866 
November 1867. 
December 1867. 
June 1869 
April 1872 
April 1873 
December 1874. 
January 1876 ... 
October 1876 ... 
January 1881 ... 
November 1877. 
June 1879 
November 1880. 
June 1880 
January 1890 ... 
February 1881... 



January 1861. 
January 1860. 
May 1860. 
April 1860. 
April 1865. 
July 1863. 
Not known. 
July 1868. 
December 1866. 
March 1870. 
October 1867. 
February 1875. 
April 1875. 
April 1874. 
November 1876. 
October 1874. 
January 1876. 
January 1884. 
January 1879. 
November 1881. 
April 1882. 
Deoember 1881. 
March 1885. 
October 1883. 
-April 1890. 
October 1883. 



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182 KISTNA DELTA BNGINEEBING HI8T0BT. 

APPENDIX No. I— cont. 
Lilt of Officers employed in connection with the Kixtna Delta WorJu — cont. 



Names. 



From 



To 



J. J. Whiteley 

A. T. Mackenzie ... 

A. B. Boyle 
G. P. Cablsss 

F.B.Allen 

J. Inglis 

W. S. Hat 

C. A. Smith 

H. A. Moss 

A. C. Laugston 

0. W. Wood 

G. F. Handcock 

C. H. D. Mabjobibanks .. 

C. MlLDBED 

S. GOPALAKBISHNA AlTAB .. 

S. B. Murray 

T. W. S. Smyth 

B. SBINIVA8A AlTANGAB .. 

B.N. H. Beid 

A. H. Mobin 

S. A. SOBBAHMANYA AlYAB 

L. D. Veneatabama Aiyab 
T. Subbamanya Aiyab 

G. B. VE NEAT A RAM A AlYAB 



ASSISTANT ENGINEEBS— «on*. 

November 1881. 
February 1885... 
November 1881. 
September 1883. 
March 1882 .. 
Jane 1883 
October 1883 ... 
December 1883. 
December 1883. 
March 1884 ... 
October 1886 ... 
December 1886. 
September 1886. 
August 1888 ... 
October 1886 ... 
December 1888. 
February 1889. 
January 1891 ... 
January 1891 ... 
February 1891. 
February 1892. 
Deoember 1891. 
January 1893 ... 
February 1894. 
January 1894 ... 
October 1893 ... 
August 1895 ... 



July 1884. 
May 1885. 
January 1883. 
August 1886. 
October 1883. 
December 1883. 
Deoember 1886. 
May 1886. 
March 1884. 
June 1886. 
January 1890. 
February 1889. 
April 1890. 
March 1889. 
May 1888. 
June 1890. 
April 1894. 
April 1893. 
August 1895. 
October 1891. 
August 1893. 
June 1896. 
Deoember 1896. 
March 1896. 
April 1897. 
April 1894. 
Up to date. 



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APPENDIX &0. I. 186 

APPENDIX No. I— cont. 
list of Officer* employed in connection with the Kistna Delta Work* — cont. 



Names. 


From 


To 


ASSISTANT ENGINEERS— cont. 




M. B. Khabegat J 


December 1895. 
December 1897. 


May 1897. 
Up to dato. 


L. L. Wickham 


September 1896. 


February 1897. 


E. Kalyanabama Aitab 


March 1896 ... 


April 1897. 


J. B. LUTMAN 


December 1896. 


September 1897. 


C. T. MULLINGS 


December 1896. 


July 1897. 


B. A. SBINIVA8A AlYANGAB 


August 1896 ... 


Up to date. 


S. A. Jagadisa Aiyab \ 


July 1896 
June 1898 


November 1896. 
Up to date. 


B/ W. FOBMBY 


January 1898 ... 


Do. 


A. W. Campbell 


November 1897. 


Do. 


S. G. BOMILLY 


February 1898 .. 


Do. 



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184 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 



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186 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HI8T0HY. 



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6,02,844 
4,07,418 


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188 



KISTNA DELTA ENGINEERING HISTORY. 



APPENDIX No. III. 

Statement showing the area irrigated under the Kistna Delta 
system from 1855-56 to 1897-98. 



Years. 


Kistna delta system. 


Remarks. 










Eastern 


Western 


Tctal. 






section. 


section 






ACRES. 


ACRES. 


ACRES. 




1855-56 




... 


38,967 


Anient finished in 1855. 


1856-57 




... 


75,758 




1857-58 






85,177 




1858-59 






107,099 




1859-60 






123,514 




1860-61 




... 


117,344 




1861-62 






139,650 




1862-63 




,., 


154,377 




1863-64 






221,634 




1864-65 






211,964 


Information by see- 


1865-66 




... 


214,638 


* tions is not avail- 


1866-67 


... 


* 


188,133 


able. 


1867-68 






200,874 




1868-69 






194,415 




1869-70 






199,775 




1870-71 


• •a 


V 


204,982 




1871-72 


... 




211,102 




1872-73 






228,532 




1873-74 


... 


• •• 


233,842 




187^75 


... 




255,118 




1875-76 


... 




261,256 




1876-77 


165,681 


100,379 


266,060 




1877-78 


169,662 


110,666 


280,328 




1878-79 


160,740 


115,455 


276,195 




1879-80 


194,C48 


109,315 


303,363 




1880-81 


170,980 


120,811 


291,791 




1881-82 


169,923 


117,151 


287,074 




1882-83 


151,206 


110,031 


261,237 




1883-84 


172,435 


125,791 


298,226 




1884-85 


178,827 


130,652 


309,479 




1885-86 


192,282 


137,931 


330,213 




1886-87 


189,269 


148,150 


337,419 




1887-88 


219,482 


168,023 


387,505 




1888-89 


241,413 


174,792 


416,205 




1889-90 


247,141 


186,834 


433,975 




1890-91 


261,709 


201,362 


463,071 




1891-92 


274,424 


206,304 


480,728 




1892-93 


269,265 


202,136 


471,401 




1893-94 


293,384 


219,194 


512,578 




1894-95 


299,250 


220,726 


519,976 




1895-96 


271,311 


210,064 


481,375 




1896-97 


295,537 


187,096 


482,633 


Include c Second Crop.' 


1897-98 


301,495 


218,878 


520,373 





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( 189 ) 



INDEX. 



Alignment of Irrigation Channels, 145. 

Anient — Proposals, 8-48; Sanction, 49; 
Site, 54 j Design, 55-57; Commenced, 59- 
64; Progress of work, 58-73; Wages 
paid, 59 ; Questions of Design and Exe- 
cution^) -63 ; Levels for floors, of * Head ' 
and ' Under ' sluices, 64 ; Floods of Dec- 
ember 1852 and July 1853, 65 ; Work to 
end, 1854, 66; Rapid progress in 1 854, 68 ; 
Despatch of Directors, 28th June 1854, 
68 ; Cat-atone surface to apron omitted, 
69-72; Completion of work reported, 
73-75 ; Government Order on comple- 
tion, 75; Cost of Anient and Head- 
works, 75 ; Proposed bridges over, 76 ; 
Anient not high enough, 77 ; Raising, 
77-78; Damage by floods, 1894, 78; 
Effect of Railway bridge on, SO-88 ; Re- 
moval of solid raising of 1891 and fixing 
falling shutters, 88 ; Description of, 128 ; 
Views of, 128-lSO. 

Anderson, Major J. C. Proposals and 
Estimate, 97-103. 

Aqueducts, 147. 

Area of District, 4, 175. 

Area of Delta, 4 and 6. 

Area irrigated, 136, 143, Appendix III. 

B 

Baddeley, W. L. C, Major— Report on 

damage to anient, 80. 
Ballakats, 148. 

Bandar Canal (see Maeulipatam Canal). 
Bank Canal, Eastern Delta, 112, 136. 
Bank Canal, Western Delta, 96, 117, 138. 
Bank Canals— Remarks on, 139. 
Bantumilli Canal, 114-135. 
Basin — drainage, of Kistna, 3. 
Bazin's Formula, 146. 
Beatson, Major, letters, 8, 9. 
Beswada, 130. 

Boats— License fees and tolls, 166, 170. 
Boats— Towage, 171. 
Brickwork, 146. 
Bridge, railway, 75 (foot-note). 

Do. Effeot on Anient, 80-88. 

Bridges, 148. 

Buckle, Captain, reports, 14-16. 
Bndameru, 5, 137. 



c 

Campbell, D.McN., Colonel, 106. 

Canals, areas of irrigation under, 136, 143. 

Canals, lengths, 136,143. 

Canal falls (Weirs), 147. 

Canal Navigation combined with irriga- 
tion, 160-163. 

Capital Expenditure, 123, 173 ; Appendix II 

Cast-iron posts on Anient, 77. 

Catchment basin, Kistna, 3. 

Censuses, 175. 

Chambers' Captain, report, 95-99. 

Channels— Irrigation, alignment, 145. 

Channels— Irrigation, length, 159. 

Chatterton, Mr., ^Observations on duty of 
water, 154. 

Coal, 142. 

Colair Lake, 4. 

Commamur Canal, 117, 139. 

Communications, 176. 

Completion Estimates, 106, 111, 122. 

Concrete, 146. 

Cost of Anient and Head-works, 75. 

Cost of System, 109, 123-125, 173; Ap- 
pendix II. 

Cotton, Sir Arthur— Project referrred to 
for opinion and his letter, 26-29; his 
letter of expostulation about delay, 
52-53 ; proposal for reservoir, 153. 

Court of Directors' despatches, 49, 68. 

Crest of Anient, 128. 

Crops, 156. 

Cultivation, 176. 

D 

Delta, Eastern, 4, 130-138. 

Delta, Western, 6, 138-14*. 

Description of whole system, Chapter VII. 

Despatches, Court of Directors, 49, 68. 

Despatches, Secretary of State, 108. 

Discharge of Kistna, 3. 

Distributaries, length of, 159. 

Drainage, 119. 

Drainages, 5, 6, 114, 118, 137, 143. 

Drainage, area of Kistna, 1. 

Drainage works, across Commamur Canal, 

141. 
Duggirala Lock and Weir, 142. 
Duty of water, 154, 



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190 



INDEX. 



E 

Earthwork, 145. 

East Coast Railway, 132, 168. 

Eastern Delta, 4, 112-130. 

Eastern Delta Drainage, 114-116, 137. 

Ellore Canal, 95-113, 131. 

Embankments, river, 65, 138. 

Estimates, original, 46 ; in 1853, 1854, 92 j. 
1858 to 1868, 94; « Completion 1 , 110. 

Expenditure, 'Capital', 124,173, Appen- 
dix II. 

Eipenditure, ' Revenue ', 126, 173. 

Extension of Irrigation, 152. 



Falls (see 'Weirs'). 

Falling shutters, 88, 128. 

Famine, Kistna District, 13, 14. 

Ferry boats, 148. 

Financial results, 173. 

Floods, season of, 3. 

Floods during construction of Anient, 65. 

Floors of Weirs, 147. 

ForbeH, Mr. H., 30. 

Formula of Discharge of Canals, &c., 146. 

Foundations, 146. 



Garden crops, 156. 

Groynes, injurious effects of, 84. 

II 

Hasted, Col. J. O., R.E., 166. 
Head Lock, Eastern Delta, 57, 90, 129. 
Head Lock, Western Delta, 57, 90, 130. 
Head Sluices (Bezwada), Eastern Delta, 57, 

89, 129. 
Head Sluices (Sitanagaram), Western 

Delta, 67, 89, 130. 
Head Sluices of distributaries, 148. 
Head-way, &c, of bridges, 148. 
Head-works (see ' Anient '). 
Higham, Mr.— Note on effect of railway 

bridge, 85 j recommendations, 87. 
.Hughes, Mr. W.— On raising of Anient, 85. 
Hughes, Mr. W.— On Navigation licenses, 

169. 



Inlets, 141. 

Interest charges, 126, 174. 

Irrigation, Chapter IX. 

Irrigation, area of, 155 ; Appendix III. 

Irrigation Channels, 145, 159. 

Irrigation Sluices, 148. 

Irrigation and Navigation, combined, 160. 



K 

Kesarapilly Aqueduct, 181. 



Lakshmipuram Lock, 135. 

Lazabanda drain, 138. 

Length of canals, 136, 143, 161. 

Length of distributaries, 159. 

Levels of floors of Head and 'Under 

Sluices, 63. 
License fees, 166, 170. 
Looks, 146. 
Locks Number, 160. 

M 

Main Canal, Eastern Delta, 95, 130. 
Main Canal, Western, Delta 96, 117, 138. 
Maintenance, cost of, 126, 127. 
Maintenance charges against Navigation, 

171. 
Masonry and masonry works, 146. 
Masulipatam, 6. 

Masulipatam Canal, 94, 95, 112, 134. 
Mullins, J., General, 106. 
Mutiny, the, 93. 

N 

Nizampatam, 7. 

Nizampatam Canal, 96, 117, 142. 
Navigable Canals, lengths of, 160. 
Navigation, Chapter X. 
Navigation Rules, 171 . 

o 

Officers, List of, Appendix I. 

Ogee falls, 147. 

Orr, Captain C. A.— Portrait (frontis- 
piece) ; put on Kistna Committee, 30 ; 
assumes charge Aniout works, 58; 
letters and reports during execution of 
works, 59-76. 

Outlets, Commamur Canal, 141. 

Over-fall, vertical, 55. 

Over-fall with Sloping Apron, 55. 



Fedda Ganjam Look, 140- 
Photographs of Anient, 128, 130. 
Plans, Vol. II. 
Polraz Canal, 114, 135. 
Population, 175. 
Posts on Auicat, 78. 
Productive Public Works Loans, 105. 
Pultfru, 5, 114, 135. 



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INDEX. 



191 



E 

Railway, East Coast, 168. 

Rain-fall, 159. 

Repalle Main drain, 6, 148. 

Reservoirs, 152 to 154. 

Results, Chapter XI. 

Revenue, 174. 

Revenue Expenditure, 126, 178. 

Rice Cultivation, 156. 

River Embankments, 65, 188, 144. 

Rompe*ru, 7, 144. 

Rules for Navigation, 171. 

Rules for Water Rates, 156. 

Rundall, Mr. J. W., 122. 

Ryves* Canal, 118, 133. 



Sangadies, 148. 

Soouring Sluices (see ' Under-slnioes ')• 

1 Second ' Crop, 156. 

Shutters, falling, on Anient, 88, 128. 

Sitanagaram, 54. 

Sketch maps, 7, 74. 

Sluices, Head (see * Head*sluioes '). 

Sluices, Irrigation, 148. 

Spring, Mr. P. J. E., Note on effect of 

Railway -bridge on Aniout, 83. 
Spurs (see * Groynes ')• 
Stoppage of works, because of the Mutiny, 



Straight-cuts, remarks about, 122. 
Surplus weirs, 147. 
Surki, 146. 



TamiMru, 132. 

Tolls, 166, 170. 

Topping, Mr. Michael, letters, 10, 13. 

Towing on Canals, 171. 

Traffic, 164. 

Tunghabhadra drain, 6, 144. 

u 

Under-sluices, 56, 129, 130. 
Upcott, Mr. F. R., on effect of Railway- 
bridge on Aniout, 83. 



Vfranki, 94. 



w 



Water-cushions to weirs, 147. 
Water, Duty of, 154. 
Water Rates, 156. 
Water, waste of, 155. 
Weirs, 147. 

Western Delta, 6, 117, 143. 
Western Delta drainage, 118. 
Working expenses, 126, 127. 



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